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At, in. At is used with places, usually small towns and villages.
It is used before a definite point of time. In is used with countries and large towns and before a period of time.
See me at six o’clock in the morning.
He lives at Ludhiana in the Punjab.
He is in England these days.
By, with. By is used to express the agent or doer of the action; with relates to the instrument with which the action is done.
He was struck by his enemy with a suck.
Between, among.Between is used with two persons or things; among with more than two.
Divide this cake between these two boys.
In, into.In is used in speaking of things at rest, into is used in speaking of things in
She is in
They marched into the hall.
On, upon.On is used in speaking of things at rest, and upon of things in motion.
He sat on a sofa.
The cat sprang upon the table.
Note:- On and upon are almost always idiomatically interchangeable. Upon is often preferred where the Preposition follows its Object; as,
‘He had no evidence to go upon’.
In, within.In means at the end of a future period; with-in means before the end of a future period.
I shall be here in [= at the end of] two days.
I shall be here within [= before the end of] two days.
After, in.After is generally used to denote some period of time in the Past; in is generally used to show some period of time in the Future.
He returned to Delhi after a week [= at the end of a week, in the past].
He will return to Delhi in a week [=at the end of a week, in the future).
Beside, besides. Beside means ‘by the side of’ or ‘outside of, besides means ‘in addition to’.
He came and sat beside me [ = by my side].
Besides [= in addition to] giving him advice, he gave him money.
Before, for. Before is used in Negative and Affirmative sentences to denote a point of future time; for is used in Negative sentences to denote a period of future time.
The sun will not rise for an hour.
[We cannot say – ‘The sun will not rise before an hour.’]
‘Before’ is used for a point of time, not for a period of time.
The sun will rise before seven o’clock. [Affirmative]
The sun will not rise before seven o’clock. [Negative]
Since, from, for.Since is used to denote a point of time, never a period of time. It is preceded by a Verb in the Present Perfect Tense. But it is correctly used when we speak of the past time, and can never be used with reference to the present or future
I have not seen him since last month.
From denotes a point of time. It may be used with all the tenses. It must be followed by to, till, or until either expressed or understood.
For denotes a period of time. It may be used with any tense except the Present Imperfect.
I have not seen her for five days.
WORDS FOLLOWED BY PREPOSITIONS
Certain Nouns, Adjectives and Verbs are followed by particular Prepositions. The following is a list of some important words followed by appropriate Prepositions.
Nouns followed by Prepositions
Acquaintance with: I have no acquaintance with Sita.
Affection for: Ali has a strong affection for that poor girl.
Apology for: She gave him an apology for her conduct.
Aptitude for: The Bengalis have great aptitude for business.
Assurance of: Ahmad gave us no assurance of his support.
Blame for: Advani accepted blame for the accident.
Candidate for: Raman is a candidate for the post.
Capacity for: Aftab has no capacity for mastering facts.
Care of: Take care of your health.
Cause for: There is no cause for anxiety.
Cause of: She is the cause of the whole trouble.
Charge of : A charge of murder was laid at his door.
Claim on : I have every claim on you.
Claim to : He has no claim to my property.
Complaint against: I have no complaint against her.
Confidence in: I have no confidence in her.
Control over: Ganga has no control over his passions.
Disgrace to : She is a disgrace to her family.
Duty to : We owe a duty to our country.
Excuse for: He had no excuse for remaining absent.
Fondness for: His fondness for her is natural.
Freedom from: Health means freedom from care.
Grief at : He felt grief at the death of his son.
Hatred for: Her hatred for him was very great.
Heir to : The prince is an heir to the throne.
Influence with: I have no influence with the Magistrate.
Interest in : I have no interest in music.
Invitation to : She has sent us an invitation to dinner.
Leniency to : You have shown undue leniency to her.
Leisure for: I have no leisure for amusement.
Limit to : There is no limit to his ambition.
Longing for: Her longing for her son is great.
Match for: Abdul is no match for Ali.
Need of : Rahman is always in need of money.
Neglect of: He is blamed for neglect of duty.
Obedience to: I praise her obedience to her husband.
Objection to: I have no objection to your going there.
Peace with: I am always at peace with my neighbours.
Pity for: The king felt pity for the poor.
Prejudice against: He has a prejudice against Hakims.
Pride in : Her great pride in her wealth is foolish.
Progress In : Sohan has made no progress in his studies.
Quarrel with: I knew nothing of his quarrel with her.
Regard for: I have great regard for him.
Remedy for: Quinine is a remedy for malaria.
Reputation for: Ghafoor has a reputation for honesty.
Respect for: The young have no respect for old age.
(A) slave to : Aftab is a slave to drink.
(The) slave of : Aftab is the slave of his passions.
Subscription to: What is your subscription to the Famine Relief Fund?
Sympathy for: All the people felt great sympathy for her in her troubles.
Sympathy with: I have sympathy with her views.
Taste for: Kamla has no taste for music.
Traitor to : He is a traitor to his country.
victim to : She is a victim to hopes and fears.
(The) victim of : She is the victim of oppression.
Adjectives and Participles followed by Prepositions
Accused of: Ghulam was accused of theft.
Acquainted with: Are you acquainted with her?
Acquitted of: The thief was acquitted of the charge.
Addicted to : Ali is addicted to gambling.
Adjacent to : The hotel is adjacent to the post office.
Afflicted with: The old man is afflicted with gout.
Afraid of: Don’t be afraid of telling the truth.
Amazed at : I was amazed at her impudence.
Angry with: She was very angry with us.
Annoyed at : Rama was annoyed at her behaviour.
Anxious for: I am anxious for her safety.
Appropriate to: The Prime Minister made a stirring speech appropriate to the occasion.
Ashamed of : Sita is ashamed of her conduct.
Astonished at : All were astonished at her disobedience.
Averse to : Pratap is averse to regular work.
Backward in : Jobn is backward in his studies.
Beneficial to : Sound sleep is beneficial to health.
Bent on : Joseph is bent on mischief.
Beset with: The path of a leader is generally beset with difficulties and obstacles.
Blessed with: She is blessed with good health.
Blind in : The carpenter is blind in the right eye.
Blind to : Rashida is blind to her own faults.
Born of: Gandhiji was not born of rich parents.
Bound for: The ship is bound for England.
Busy with: Jack is busy with his lessons.
Capable of : She is capable of improvement.
Careful about: She is very careful about her dress.
Charged with: The beggar was charged with theft.
Confident of : Mohan is confident of success.
Conscious of: Shakuntala is conscious of her faults.
Contented with: She is contented with her lot.
Contrary to : The boys acted contrary to my orders.
Deaf to : He was deaf to all her entreaties.
Deficient in: She is deficient in commonsense.
Dependent on : She is dependent on her parents.
Desirous of: Rama is desirous of going abroad.
Different from: His religious views are different from hers.
Diffident of : Afzal is very diffident of success.
Disgusted with: I am disgusted with her conduct.
Engaged to : Kanta is engaged to Harish.
Engaged in : Thomas is engaged in drawing a picture.
Equal to : Sikandar is not equal to the task.
Essential to : Health is essential to happiness.
Faithful to : The dog is very faithful to his master.
False to : Ahmad proved false to his friends.
Familiar to : Her name seems quite familiar to me.
Familiar with: I am not familiar with her tricks.
Famous for: He is famous for his learning.
Fit for: Krishna is fit for the job.
Fond of : Girls are fond of dolls.
Free from: Ramesh is now free from troubles.
Full of : That book is full of mistakes.
Glad at : We are glad at your success.
Glad of: I shall be glad of your help in this business.
Good for: This medicine is good for headache.
Greedy of : Mukerjee is greedy of gain.
Guilty of: The beggar was found guilty of theft.
Honest in : Karim is not honest in his dealings.
Hopeful of : Is she hopeful of success?
Horrified at : We were horrified at the sight.
Ignorant of: The Headmaster is ignorant of facts.
Ill with: Manorama is ill with fever.
Indebted to : I am indebted to her for her timely help.
Indifferent to : They are indifferent to their own interests.
Indulgent to : She is very indulgent to her children.
Infested with: This house is infested with rats.
Injurious to : Alcohol is injurious to health ..
Intent on : He seems intent on my ruin.
Interested in : Why are you interested in Kamala?
Introduced to : I was introduced to the Collector.
Jealous of: He is jealous of his reputation.
Lame in : The beggar was lame in the left leg.
Lost to : Ali is lost to all sense of shame ..
Loyal to : The Princes are loyal to the Government.
Married to : Pushpa was married to Mohan.
Negligent in : He is negligent in doing his duty.
Obedient to : Aftab is obedient to his parents.
Obliged to : I am obliged to her for her kindness.
Occupied by : This house is occupied by Parsis.
Occupied with: He is just now occupied with translating some documents.
Occupied in : John was occupied in reading a novel.
Offended with: I was offended with her at her insolence.
Open to : She is not open to conviction.
Overcome with: He was overcome with sorrow.
Overwhelmed with: She was overwhelmed with grief.
Partial to : We are all partial to our friends.
Peculiar to : This is a custom peculiar to the Japanese.
Popular with: Mr. George is popular with the boys.
Preferable to : Health is preferable to wealth.
Prepared for: I am prepared for the worst.
Proficient in : Gopal is proficient in Mathematics.
Proud of: He is proud of his wealth.
Quick of : She is quick of understanding.
Quick at : This boy is quick at inventing excuses.
Reconciled with: Ultimately she became reconciled with her husband.
Reduced to : The prince was reduced to poverty.
Related to : Is she related to you?
Repentant of: Mary is repentant of her sin.
Respectful to : Good boys are respectful to all.
Satisfied with: I am satisfied with her conduct.
Sensitive to : She is sensitive to praise and blame.
Serviceable to: This umbrella will be serviceable to you in the rainy season.
Shocked at : All of us were shocked at her behaviour.
Short of : Afzal is always short of money.
Sick of : I am sick of advising her.
Slow of : Slow of hearing, slow to make up one’s mind, slow at accounts.
Sorry for: The Headmaster was sorry for his mistake.
Steeped in : Mahmud is steeped in vice and poverty.
Suited to : His speech was suited to the occasion.
Sure of : She is sure of success.
Suspicious of : The English are suspicious of the Germans.
Sympathetic with: She is sympathetic with sufferers.
Thankful for: We ought to be thankful to God for His small mercies.
Tired of: Everyone is tired of doing nothing.
True to : Mohan is true to his friends.
Useful for: Salt is useful for many purposes.
Vain of : She is vain of her beauty.
Vexed with: I am vexed with her for disobeying me.
Verbs Followed By Prepositions
Abide by : You must abide by your promise.
Abound with: This house abounds with rats.
Abound in : Her conversation abounds in good things.
Abstain from: Abstain from evil and do good.
Accede to : The Principal acceded to my request.
Acquit of: The judge acquitted him of theft.
Act from: She acted from fear.
Admit of: Your conduct admits of no excuse.
Agree with a person: Trilok does not agree with me.
Agree to a proposal: I agree to your offer of marriage.
Aim at : All of us aim at excellence.
Apologize to a person: I apologized to her for my mistake.
Appeal to a person: We appealed to her for help.
Appoint to : Jack was appointed to the vacant post.
Arrive at (a place): We arrived at the station at ten.
Arrive in (a country): The Queen has arrived in India.
Attend to : Attend to your lessons, please.
Attend upon: The servant attended upon me.
Avail of: I availed myself of his offer.
Avenge on : He avenged himself on his enemies.
Bear with: You must bear with my weaknesses.
Beat against: The waves beat against the rocks.
Beg of: We all begged pardon of her.
Beg for: The poor woman begged for bread from me.
Believe in : I do not believe in her honesty.
Bestow on : The Queen bestowed high honour on her.
Beware of: Beware of false friends.
Blame for: We can hardly blame her for her conduct.
Boast of: She boasts of her cleverness.
Borrow from: Rahman borrowed Rs. 500 from me.
Break into: The thieves broke into his house at night.
Brood over: Do not brood over past grievances.
Buy of: He bought this pen of Rama.
Buy from: We bought this watch from his shop.
Call on : We called on her yesterday.
Call to : Rama called to her loudly.
Call for: Your conduct calls for punishment.
Care for: I do not care for her opinion.
Charge with: We charged her with theft.
Come across: I came across this in a curio shop.
Compare with: (to show difference). Compare the character of Mohan with that of Rini.
Compare to : (to show resemblance). Anger may be compared to fire.
Compete with: I competed with Hari for the first prize.
Complain of: He complains of severe headache.
Complain against: Mr. Sherwani complained against the dishonest merchant to the Magistrate.
Comply with: We always complied with his request.
Confer on: She conferred a favour on us.
Confide in : The king confided in his ministers.
Confide to :Confide your secrets to none.
Congratulate on : I congratulated her on her success.
Convict of: The judge convicted him of theft.
Cure of: The medicine cured him of herd is ease.
Deal in : He deals in Japanese goods.
Deal with:Deal fairly with everyone.
Defend from: I defended her from al1 blame.
Deprive of: Slaves are deprived of their freedom.
Derive from: Can pleasure be derived from bad actions?
Despair of: Raman never despaired of success.
Die of: Chatterjee died of typhoid.
Die by : He died by his own hand.
Differ with: I differ with you on this subject.
Differ from: This cloth differs from that.
Disagree with: I disagree with you on this point.
Dispose of: She has disposed of all her property.
Dissuade from: Afzal dissuaded her from going there.
Distinguish from:Distinguish truth from falsehood.
Dream of: She dreamt of becoming a queen one day.
Enlist in : Karim has enlisted in the army.
Enter upon: Satish has entered upon a new career.
Exchange for: He exchanged the cow for the horse.
Explain to :Explain this question to me.
Fall under: He fell under the displeasure of the king.
Fall upon: The robbers fell upon the merchant.
Feed on : The cow feeds on grass.
Feel for: We all felt for her in her troubles.
Fight with or against: I am not strong enough to fight with or against you.
Fly at: The dog flew at the beggar.
Fly into: Seeing me, she flew into a rage.
Furnish with: They furnished her with books.
[Or] They furnished books to her.
Get at : Get at (find out) the facts.
Get over: He got over (recovered from) his illness.
Get out of: I have not yet been able to get out of debt.
Get to : In the evening they got to their journey’s end.
Grieve at : They grieved at my failure.
Grieve for: Do not grieve much for the dead.
Grumble at : He is always grumbling at his hard lot.
Guard against: We must guard against vices.
Hear of: Have you heard of his success?
Hide from: I will not hide the truth from my parents.
Hinder from: What hindered you from coming here?
Hope for: We always hope for better times.
Import into: Sugar was imported into India from Java.
Impress on : I impressed on her the value of cleanliness.
Impute to: Do not impute motives to her action.
Inform of: I have informed her of my intentions.
Inquire into: The Police are inquiring into the matter.
Inquire of: I inquired of her when she would return.
Insist on: He insisted on my leaving the place at once.
Inspire with: The General inspired his soldiers with courage.
Interfere with: He interfered with her in her private affairs.
Introduce to: Mahavir introduced me to Kamala.
Invite to : I have invited Rashida also to dinner.
Jeer at: Do not jeer at an ugly person.
Jest at: Never jest at sacred ceremonies.
Join to:Join the point C to the point D.
Jump at : Allah Bux jumped at the offer at once.
Jump to : The Superintendent jumped to the conclusion that the prisoner had escaped from the jail.
Keep from: Keep away from wine.
Keep to : Keep to the point, please.
Kick against: Do not kick against authority.
Kick at : Hem Chandra kicked at my offer.
Knock at : He knocked at every door for money.
Labour for: All his life he laboured for the public good.
Lament for: Do not lament for the dead.
Laugh at : We all laughed at her bad manners.
Lay before: Mohan laid all the facts before her.
Lay to : We laid this sin to her charge.
Lay under: I have laid her under deep obligation by helping her in distress
Lead to : This road leads to Poona.
Lean to: This judge seems to lean to his side.
Level with: The enemy levelled the city with the ground.
Listen to : Don’t listen to that foolish fellow.
Live by: Live by honest labour.
Live within: Live within your means.
Look at: A cat may look at a king.
Look after: The shepherd looked after his sheep.
Meddle with: Do not meddle with other men’s business.
Meet with: I met with many obstacles. but pressed on.
Mourn for: Do not mourn for the dead.
Mix with: Oil will not mix with water.
Murmur against: We must not murmur against new taxes.
Murmur at : We all murmur at injustice.
Object to : She objects to my going there.
Occur to : It did not occur to me to search his pockets.
Originate in : The fight originated in a foolish quarrel.
Part with: He parted with all his wealth.
Partake of: We partook of the feast spread before us.
Pass for: Pratap passed for a clever man.
Perish by : He perished by the sword.
Perish with: They perished with cold.
Persist in : Rama persists in annoying his teacher.
Pine for: She pined for the lost child.
Play with: Do not play with fireworks.
Play on : Smile played on her lips.
Prefer to : I prefer milk to tea.
Present with: We presented her with a watch.
Preserve from: May God preserve you from all harm.
Preside over: The Governor presides over the Council.
Prevail on: We prevailed on her to come to the meeting.
Prevent from: She prevented me from coming here.
Profit by : A wise man profits by the mistakes of others.
Prohibit from: You are prohibited from entering the class.
Protect from: God will protect you from all harm.
Protect against: God shall protect you against injustice.
Protest against: You must protest against injustice.
Provide for: I shall provide for your education.
Provide with: I shall provide myself with a new hat.
Provide against: A wise man provides against a rainy day.
Quarrel with: Do not quarrel with your friends over a trifle.
Reconcile to : You must reconcile yourself to a life of hardship and poverty.
Reconcile with: He refused to become reconciled with his brother.
Recover from: He has just recovered from illness.
Refrain from: She refrained from shedding tears.
Rejoice at : We all rejoiced at her success.
Relieve of: The medicine relieved me of my pain.
Relieve from: The medicine relieved her from pain.
Rely on : Do not rely on her support.
Remind of : He reminded me of my promise.
Repent of: He repents of the mistake he has made.
Resolve on : She resolves on going there.
Rest with: It rests with her to take action against him.
Revenge on : He revenged himself on his enemy for the murder of his brother.
Reward with: I rewarded her with a watch for saving my child from drowning.
Rule over: The king ruled over a vast empire.
Save from: He saved her from drowning.
Search for: We searched for the lost watch everywhere.
Seek for: All of us seek for happiness.
Send for: They sent for the doctor.
Show over: Mohan showed her over his new house.
Shudder at : I shudder at her act of cruelty.
Side with: Aftab sided with us in the dispute.
Smile at : I smiled at her foolish threat.
Smile on : Fortune seemed to smile on him.
Stick to : Stick to your point.
Struggle against: She struggled against many difficulties.
Submit to : We must all submit to God’s will.
Subscribe to : He subscribed Rs. 100 to the flood relief fund.
Succeed to : He succeeded to the throne at the age of ten.
Supply to : He supplied food to the poor.
Supply with: He supplied the poor with food.
Sympathise with: We sympathised with her in her troubles.
Talk of or about: All are talking of the strange event.
Throw at : Don’t throw stones at birds.
Treat of: This book treats of every important subject.