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English
PREPOSITIONS
December 18, 2015
0

Some Guidelines For Use

 

  • At, in. At is used with places, usually small towns and villages.

 

It is used before a definite point of time. In is used with countries and large towns and before a period of time.

 

  • See me at six o’clock in the morning.

 

  • He lives at Ludhiana in the Punjab.

 

  • He is in England these days.

 

  • By, with. By is used to express the agent or doer of the action; with relates to the instrument with which the action is done.

 

He was struck by his enemy with a suck.

 

 

  • Between, among. Between is used with two persons or things; among with more than two.

 

Divide this cake between these two boys.

 

 

  • In, into. In is used in speaking of things at rest, into is used in speaking of things in

 

  • She is in

 

  • They marched into the hall.

 

  • On, upon. On is used in speaking of things at rest, and upon of things in motion.

 

  • He sat on a sofa.

 

  • The cat sprang upon the table.

 

Note:-   On and upon are almost always idiomatically interchangeable. Upon is often preferred where the Preposition follows its Object; as,

 

  • ‘He had no evidence to go upon’.

 

 

  • In, within. In means at the end of a future period; with-in means before the end of a future period.

 

  • I shall be here in [= at the end of] two days.

 

  • I shall be here within [= before the end of] two days.

 

 

 

  • After, in. After is generally used to denote some period of time in the Past; in is generally used to show some period of time in the Future.

 

He returned to Delhi after a week [= at the end of a week, in the past].

 

  • He will return to Delhi in a week [=at the end of a week, in the future).

 

  • Beside, besides. Beside means ‘by the side of’ or ‘outside of, besides means ‘in addition to’.

 

  • He came and sat beside me [ = by my side].

 

  • Besides [= in addition to] giving him advice, he gave him money.

 

  • Before, for. Before is used in Negative and Affirmative sentences to denote a point of future time; for is used in Negative sentences to denote a period of future time.

 

  • The sun will not rise for an hour.

 

[We cannot say – ‘The sun will not rise before an hour.’]

 

  • ‘Before’ is used for a point of time, not for a period of time.

 

  • The sun will rise before seven o’clock. [Affirmative]

 

  • The sun will not rise before seven o’clock. [Negative]

 

  • Since, from, for. Since is used to denote a point of time, never a period of time. It is preceded by a Verb in the Present Perfect Tense. But it is correctly used when we speak of the past time, and can never be used with reference to the present or future

 

  • I have not seen him since last month.

 

From denotes a point of time. It may be used with all the tenses. It must be followed by to, till, or until either expressed or understood.

 

For denotes a period of time. It may be used with any tense except the Present Imperfect.

 

  • I have not seen her for five days.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

WORDS FOLLOWED BY PREPOSITIONS

 

Certain Nouns, Adjectives and Verbs are followed by particular Prepositions. The following is a list of some important words followed by appropriate Prepositions.

 

Nouns followed by Prepositions


Acquaintance with: I have no acquaintance with Sita.

 

Affection for: Ali has a strong affection for that poor girl.

 

Apology for: She gave him an apology for her conduct.

 

Aptitude for: The Bengalis have great aptitude for business.

 

Assurance of: Ahmad gave us no assurance of his support.

 

Blame for: Advani accepted blame for the accident.

 

Candidate for: Raman is a candidate for the post.

 

Capacity for: Aftab has no capacity for mastering facts.

 

Care of: Take care of your health.

 

Cause for: There is no cause for anxiety.

 

Cause of: She is the cause of the whole trouble.

 

Charge of : A charge of murder was laid at his door.

 

Claim on : I have every claim on you.

 

Claim to : He has no claim to my property.

 

Complaint against: I have no complaint against her.

 

Confidence in: I have no confidence in her.

 

Control over: Ganga has no control over his passions.

 

Disgrace to : She is a disgrace to her family.

 

Duty to : We owe a duty to our country.

 

Excuse for: He had no excuse for remaining absent.

 

Fondness for: His fondness for her is natural.

Freedom from: Health means freedom from care.

 

Grief at : He felt grief at the death of his son.

 

Hatred for: Her hatred for him was very great.

 

Heir to : The prince is an heir to the throne.

 

Influence with: I have no influence with the Magistrate.

 

Interest in : I have no interest in music.

 

Invitation to : She has sent us an invitation to dinner.

 

Leniency to : You have shown undue leniency to her.

 

Leisure for: I have no leisure for amusement.

 

Limit to : There is no limit to his ambition.

 

Longing for: Her longing for her son is great.

 

Match for: Abdul is no match for Ali.

 

Need of : Rahman is always in need of money.

 

Neglect of: He is blamed for neglect of duty.

 

Obedience to: I praise her obedience to her husband.

 

Objection to: I have no objection to your going there.

 

Peace with: I am always at peace with my neighbours.

 

Pity for: The king felt pity for the poor.

 

Prejudice against: He has a prejudice against Hakims.

 

Pride in : Her great pride in her wealth is foolish.

 

Progress In : Sohan has made no progress in his studies.

 

Quarrel with: I knew nothing of his quarrel with her.

Regard for: I have great regard for him.

 

Remedy for: Quinine is a remedy for malaria.

 

Reputation for: Ghafoor has a reputation for honesty.

 

Respect for: The young have no respect for old age.

 

(A) slave to : Aftab is a slave to drink.

 

(The) slave of : Aftab is the slave of his passions.

 

Subscription to: What is your subscription to the Famine Relief Fund?

Sympathy for: All the people felt great sympathy for her in her troubles.

 

Sympathy with: I have sympathy with her views.

 

Taste for: Kamla has no taste for music.

 

Traitor to : He is a traitor to his country.

 

  • victim to : She is a victim to hopes and fears.

 

(The) victim of : She is the victim of oppression.

 


 

 

Adjectives and Participles followed by Prepositions

 


Accused of: Ghulam was accused of theft.

 

Acquainted with: Are you acquainted with her?

 

Acquitted of: The thief was acquitted of the charge.

 

Addicted to : Ali is addicted to gambling.

 

Adjacent to : The hotel is adjacent to the post office.

 

Afflicted with: The old man is afflicted with gout.

 

Afraid of: Don’t be afraid of telling the truth.

 

Amazed at : I was amazed at her impudence.

 

Angry with: She was very angry with us.

 

Annoyed at : Rama was annoyed at her behaviour.

 

Anxious for: I am anxious for her safety.

 

Appropriate to: The Prime Minister made a stirring speech appropriate to the occasion.

 

Ashamed of : Sita is ashamed of her conduct.

 

Astonished at : All were astonished at her disobedience.

 

Averse to : Pratap is averse to regular work.

 

Backward in : Jobn is backward in his studies.

 

 

Beneficial to : Sound sleep is beneficial to health.

 

Bent on : Joseph is bent on mischief.

 

Beset with: The path of a leader is generally beset with difficulties and obstacles.

 

Blessed with: She is blessed with good health.

 

Blind in : The carpenter is blind in the right eye.

 

Blind to : Rashida is blind to her own faults.

 

Born of: Gandhiji was not born of rich parents.

 

Bound for: The ship is bound for England.

 

Busy with: Jack is busy with his lessons.

 

Capable of : She is capable of improvement.

 

Careful about: She is very careful about her dress.

 

Charged with: The beggar was charged with theft.

 

Confident of : Mohan is confident of success.

 

Conscious of: Shakuntala is conscious of her faults.

 

Contented with: She is contented with her lot.

 

Contrary to : The boys acted contrary to my orders.

Deaf to : He was deaf to all her entreaties.

 

Deficient in: She is deficient in commonsense.

 

Dependent on : She is dependent on her parents.

 

Desirous of: Rama is desirous of going abroad.

 

Different from: His religious views are different from hers.

 

Diffident of : Afzal is very diffident of success.

 

Disgusted with: I am disgusted with her conduct.

 

Engaged to : Kanta is engaged to Harish.

 

Engaged in : Thomas is engaged in drawing a picture.

 

Equal to : Sikandar is not equal to the task.

 

Essential to : Health is essential to happiness.

 

Faithful to : The dog is very faithful to his master.

 

False to : Ahmad proved false to his friends.

 

Familiar to : Her name seems quite familiar to me.

 

Familiar with: I am not familiar with her tricks.

 

Famous for: He is famous for his learning.

 

Fit for: Krishna is fit for the job.

 

Fond of : Girls are fond of dolls.

 

Free from: Ramesh is now free from troubles.

 

Full of : That book is full of mistakes.

 

Glad at : We are glad at your success.

 

Glad of: I shall be glad of your help in this business.

 

Good for: This medicine is good for headache.

 

Greedy of : Mukerjee is greedy of gain.

 

Guilty of: The beggar was found guilty of theft.

 

Honest in : Karim is not honest in his dealings.

 

Hopeful of : Is she hopeful of success?

 

Horrified at : We were horrified at the sight.

 

Ignorant of: The Headmaster is ignorant of facts.

 

Ill with: Manorama is ill with fever.

 

Indebted to : I am indebted to her for her timely help.

 

Indifferent to : They are indifferent to their own interests.

 

Indulgent to : She is very indulgent to her children.

 

Infested with: This house is infested with rats.

 

Injurious to : Alcohol is injurious to health ..

 

Intent on : He seems intent on my ruin.

 

Interested in : Why are you interested in Kamala?

 

Introduced to : I was introduced to the Collector.

 

Jealous of: He is jealous of his reputation.

 

Lame in : The beggar was lame in the left leg.

 

Lost to : Ali is lost to all sense of shame ..

 

Loyal to : The Princes are loyal to the Government.

 

Married to : Pushpa was married to Mohan.

 

Negligent in : He is negligent in doing his duty.

 

Obedient to : Aftab is obedient to his parents.

 

Obliged to : I am obliged to her for her kindness.

 

Occupied by : This house is occupied by Parsis.

 

Occupied with: He is just now occupied with translating some documents.

 

Occupied in : John was occupied in reading a novel.

 

Offended with: I was offended with her at her insolence.

 

Open to : She is not open to conviction.

 

Overcome with: He was overcome with sorrow.

 

Overwhelmed with: She was overwhelmed with grief.

 

Partial to : We are all partial to our friends.

 

Peculiar to : This is a custom peculiar to the Japanese.

 

Popular with: Mr. George is popular with the boys.

 

Preferable to : Health is preferable to wealth.

 

Prepared for: I am prepared for the worst.

 

Proficient in : Gopal is proficient in Mathematics.

 

Proud of: He is proud of his wealth.

 

Quick of : She is quick of understanding.

 

Quick at : This boy is quick at inventing excuses.

 

Reconciled with: Ultimately she became reconciled with her husband.

 

Reduced to : The prince was reduced to poverty.

 

Related to : Is she related to you?

 

Repentant of: Mary is repentant of her sin.

 

Respectful to : Good boys are respectful to all.

 

 

Satisfied with: I am satisfied with her conduct.

 

Sensitive to : She is sensitive to praise and blame.

 

Serviceable to: This umbrella will be serviceable to you in the rainy season.

 

Shocked at : All of us were shocked at her behaviour.

 

Short of : Afzal is always short of money.

 

Sick of : I am sick of advising her.

 

Slow of : Slow of hearing, slow to make up one’s mind, slow at accounts.

 

Sorry for: The Headmaster was sorry for his mistake.

 

Steeped in : Mahmud is steeped in vice and poverty.

 

Suited to : His speech was suited to the occasion.

 

Sure of : She is sure of success.

 

Suspicious of : The English are suspicious of the Germans.

 

Sympathetic with: She is sympathetic with sufferers.

 

Thankful for: We ought to be thankful to God for His small mercies.

 

Tired of: Everyone is tired of doing nothing.

 

True to : Mohan is true to his friends.

 

Useful for: Salt is useful for many purposes.

 

Vain of : She is vain of her beauty.

 

Vexed with: I am vexed with her for disobeying me.


 

 

 

 

 


 

Verbs Followed By Prepositions

 


Abide by : You must abide by your promise.

 

Abound with: This house abounds with rats.

 

Abound in : Her conversation abounds in good things.

Abstain from: Abstain from evil and do good.

Accede to : The Principal acceded to my request.

 

Acquit of: The judge acquitted him of theft.

 

Act from: She acted from fear.

 

Admit of: Your conduct admits of no excuse.

 

Agree with a person: Trilok does not agree with me.

 

Agree to a proposal: I agree to your offer of marriage.

 

Aim at : All of us aim at excellence.

 

Apologize to a person: I apologized to her for my mistake.

 

Appeal to a person: We appealed to her for help.

 

Appoint to : Jack was appointed to the vacant post.

 

Arrive at (a place): We arrived at the station at ten.

 

Arrive in (a country): The Queen has arrived in India.

 

Attend to : Attend to your lessons, please.

 

Attend upon: The servant attended upon me.

 

Avail of: I availed myself of his offer.

 

Avenge on : He avenged himself on his enemies.

 

Bear with: You must bear with my weaknesses.

 

Beat against: The waves beat against the rocks.

 

Beg of: We all begged pardon of her.

 

Beg for: The poor woman begged for bread from me.

 

Believe in : I do not believe in her honesty.

 

Bestow on : The Queen bestowed high honour on her.

 

Beware of: Beware of false friends.

 

Blame for: We can hardly blame her for her conduct.

 

Boast of: She boasts of her cleverness.

 

Borrow from: Rahman borrowed Rs. 500 from me.

Break into: The thieves broke into his house at night.

 

Brood over: Do not brood over past grievances.

 

Buy of: He bought this pen of Rama.

 

Buy from: We bought this watch from his shop.

 

Call on : We called on her yesterday.

 

Call to : Rama called to her loudly.

 

Call for: Your conduct calls for punishment.

 

Care for: I do not care for her opinion.

 

Charge with: We charged her with theft.

 

Come across: I came across this in a curio shop.

 

Compare with: (to show difference). Compare the character of Mohan with that of Rini.

 

Compare to : (to show resemblance). Anger may be compared to fire.

 

Compete with: I competed with Hari for the first prize.

 

Complain of: He complains of severe headache.

 

Complain against: Mr. Sherwani complained against the dishonest merchant to the Magistrate.

 

Comply with: We always complied with his request.

 

Confer on: She conferred a favour on us.

 

Confide in : The king confided in his ministers.

 

Confide to : Confide your secrets to none.

 

Congratulate on : I congratulated her on her success.

 

Convict of: The judge convicted him of theft.

 

Cure of: The medicine cured him of herd is ease.

 

Deal in : He deals in Japanese goods.

 

Deal with: Deal fairly with everyone.

 

Defend from: I defended her from al1 blame.

 

Deprive of: Slaves are deprived of their freedom.

 

Derive from: Can pleasure be derived from bad actions?

 

Despair of: Raman never despaired of success.

 

Die of: Chatterjee died of typhoid.

 

Die by : He died by his own hand.

 

Differ with: I differ with you on this subject.

 

Differ from: This cloth differs from that.

 

Disagree with: I disagree with you on this point.

 

Dispose of: She has disposed of all her property.

 

Dissuade from: Afzal dissuaded her from going there.

 

Distinguish from: Distinguish truth from falsehood.

 

Dream of: She dreamt of becoming a queen one day.

 

Enlist in : Karim has enlisted in the army.

 

Enter upon: Satish has entered upon a new career.

 

Exchange for: He exchanged the cow for the horse.

 

Explain to : Explain this question to me.

 

Fall under: He fell under the displeasure of the king.

 

Fall upon: The robbers fell upon the merchant.

 

Feed on : The cow feeds on grass.

 

Feel for: We all felt for her in her troubles.

 

Fight with or against: I am not strong enough to fight with or against you.

 

Fly at: The dog flew at the beggar.

 

Fly into: Seeing me, she flew into a rage.

 

Furnish with: They furnished her with books.

[Or] They furnished books to her.

 

Get at : Get at (find out) the facts.

 

Get over: He got over (recovered from) his illness.

 

Get out of: I have not yet been able to get out of debt.

 

Get to : In the evening they got to their journey’s end.

 

Grieve at : They grieved at my failure.

 

Grieve for: Do not grieve much for the dead.

 

Grumble at : He is always grumbling at his hard lot.

 

Guard against: We must guard against vices.

 

Hear of: Have you heard of his success?

 

Hide from: I will not hide the truth from my parents.

 

Hinder from: What hindered you from coming here?

 

Hope for: We always hope for better times.

 

Import into: Sugar was imported into India from Java.

 

Impress on : I impressed on her the value of cleanliness.

 

Impute to: Do not impute motives to her action.

 

Inform of: I have informed her of my intentions.

 

Inquire into: The Police are inquiring into the matter.

 

Inquire of: I inquired of her when she would return.

 

Insist on: He insisted on my leaving the place at once.

 

Inspire with: The General inspired his soldiers with courage.

 

 

Interfere with: He interfered with her in her private affairs.

 

Introduce to: Mahavir introduced me to Kamala.

 

Invite to : I have invited Rashida also to dinner.

 

Jeer at: Do not jeer at an ugly person.

 

Jest at: Never jest at sacred ceremonies.

 

Join to: Join the point C to the point D.

 

Jump at : Allah Bux jumped at the offer at once.

 

Jump to : The Superintendent jumped to the conclusion that the prisoner had escaped from the jail.

 

Keep from: Keep away from wine.

 

Keep to : Keep to the point, please.

 

Kick against: Do not kick against authority.

 

Kick at : Hem Chandra kicked at my offer.

 

Knock at : He knocked at every door for money.

 

Labour for: All his life he laboured for the public good.

 

Lament for: Do not lament for the dead.

 

Laugh at : We all laughed at her bad manners.

 

Lay before: Mohan laid all the facts before her.

 

Lay to : We laid this sin to her charge.

 

Lay under: I have laid her under deep obligation by helping her in distress

 

Lead to : This road leads to Poona.

 

Lean to: This judge seems to lean to his side.

 

Level with: The enemy levelled the city with the ground.

 

Listen to : Don’t listen to that foolish fellow.

 

Live by: Live by honest labour.

 

Live within: Live within your means.

Look at: A cat may look at a king.

 

Look after: The shepherd looked after his sheep.

 

Meddle with: Do not meddle with other men’s business.

 

Meet with: I met with many obstacles. but pressed on.

 

Mourn for: Do not mourn for the dead.

 

Mix with: Oil will not mix with water.

 

Murmur against: We must not murmur against new taxes.

 

Murmur at : We all murmur at injustice.

 

Object to : She objects to my going there.

 

Occur to : It did not occur to me to search his pockets.

 

Originate in : The fight originated in a foolish quarrel.

 

Part with: He parted with all his wealth.

 

Partake of: We partook of the feast spread before us.

 

Pass for: Pratap passed for a clever man.

 

Perish by : He perished by the sword.

 

Perish with: They perished with cold.

 

Persist in : Rama persists in annoying his teacher.

 

Pine for: She pined for the lost child.

 

Play with: Do not play with fireworks.

 

Play on : Smile played on her lips.

 

Prefer to : I prefer milk to tea.

 

Present with: We presented her with a watch.

 

Preserve from: May God preserve you from all harm.

 

Preside over: The Governor presides over the Council.

 

Prevail on: We prevailed on her to come to the meeting.

Prevent from: She prevented me from coming here.

 

Profit by : A wise man profits by the mistakes of others.

 

Prohibit from: You are prohibited from entering the class.

 

Protect from: God will protect you from all harm.

 

Protect against: God shall protect you against injustice.

 

Protest against: You must protest against injustice.

 

Provide for: I shall provide for your education.

 

Provide with: I shall provide myself with a new hat.

 

Provide against: A wise man provides against a rainy day.

 

Quarrel with: Do not quarrel with your friends over a trifle.

 

Reconcile to : You must reconcile yourself to a life of hardship and poverty.

 

Reconcile with: He refused to become reconciled with his brother.

 

Recover from: He has just recovered from illness.

 

Refrain from: She refrained from shedding tears.

 

Rejoice at : We all rejoiced at her success.

 

Relieve of: The medicine relieved me of my pain.

 

Relieve from: The medicine relieved her from pain.

 

Rely on : Do not rely on her support.

 

Remind of : He reminded me of my promise.

 

Repent of: He repents of the mistake he has made.

 

Resolve on : She resolves on going there.

 

Rest with: It rests with her to take action against him.

Revenge on : He revenged himself on his enemy for the murder of his brother.

 

Reward with: I rewarded her with a watch for saving my child from drowning.

 

Rule over: The king ruled over a vast empire.

 

Save from: He saved her from drowning.

 

Search for: We searched for the lost watch everywhere.

 

Seek for: All of us seek for happiness.

 

Send for: They sent for the doctor.

 

Show over: Mohan showed her over his new house.

 

Shudder at : I shudder at her act of cruelty.

 

Side with: Aftab sided with us in the dispute.

 

Smile at : I smiled at her foolish threat.

 

Smile on : Fortune seemed to smile on him.

 

Stick to : Stick to your point.

 

Struggle against: She struggled against many difficulties.

 

Submit to : We must all submit to God’s will.

 

Subscribe to : He subscribed Rs. 100 to the flood relief fund.

 

Succeed to : He succeeded to the throne at the age of ten.

 

Supply to : He supplied food to the poor.

 

Supply with: He supplied the poor with food.

 

Sympathise with: We sympathised with her in her troubles.

 

Talk of or about: All are talking of the strange event.

 

Throw at : Don’t throw stones at birds.

 

Treat of: This book treats of every important subject.

 

Triumph over: Virtue always triumphs over vice.

 

Trust in : Trust in God and do the right.

Wait on : All her maids waited On her.

 

Wait for: We waited impatiently for the train.

 

Warn of: We warned her of the danger.

 

Wonder at : I wonder at your stupidity.

 

Wrestle with: Wrestle bravely with difficulties.

 

Yield to: Never yield to temptation.