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National InsigniaNational Emblem – The National Emblem of India is an adaptation of the Buddhist Lion Capital of Ashoka at Sarnath, near Varanasi in the North Indian State of Uttar Pradesh.

National Animal – The Tiger is the National Animal of India. It is the symbol of India’s wildlife heritage. The magnificent tiger is a striped animal.

National Bird – The Peacock is the National Bird of India. It is a symbol of qualities like beauty and grace.

National Flag – The National Flag is a horizontal tricolour of deep saffron (kesari) at the top, white in the middle and dark green at the bottom. There is a wheel (chakra) with 24 spikes in the middle.

National Fruit – The Mango is the National fruit. It has been cultivated in India since time immemorial.

National Tree – The National Tree of India is the Banyan tree. This huge tree towers over its neighbours and has the widest trunk.

National Game – Hockey in which India has an impressive record with eight Olympic medals, is considered as the National Sport.

National Anthem – Jana gana mana is our national anthem and was composed originally in Sanskritised Bengali by Rabindranath Tagore. Its Hindi Version was adopted on 24th January, 1950. It was first sung on 27th December, 1911.

National Song – The song Vande Mataram, composed in Sanskrit by Bankimchandra Chatterji is our National Song.

National Calendar – The National Calendar is based on the Saka Era with Chaitra as its first month and a normal year of 365 days was adopted from 22nd March, 1957.

National Flower – Lotus is the National Flower of India

 

Classical and Folk Dances of India

 

Dance                               State                              Dance                                        State

 

Kuchipudi                     Andhra Pradesh          Kathakali                        Kerala

 

Bihu                              Assam                          Garba                          Gujarat

 

Nat-Natin                       Bihar                            Nati                              Himachal Pradesh

 

Rauf                             Jammu and Kashmir   Kathak                            North India

 

Hattari                           Karnataka                    Yakshagan                    Karnataka

 

Bharatnatyam                Tamil Nadu                  Chhau                        Bihar

 

Bhangra                        Punjab                          Odissi                          Odisha

 

Pandvani                       Madhya Pradesh           Saang                             Haryana

 

Mohiniattam                  Kerala                          Ghoomar (Jhoomar)     Rajasthan

 

Giddha                           Panjab

 

 

 

Musical Instruments & Exponents

 

Instrument                 Exponent

 

Sarod                           Amjad Ali Khan

 

Sitar                             Pandit Ravi Shankar, Buddhaditya Mukherjee

 

Shehnai                        Ustad Bismillah Khan

 

Flute                             Hari Prasad Chaurasiya

 

Mandolin                       Mandolin Sreenivasan

 

Violin                            VK Jog

 

Santoor                        Shiv Kumar Sharma, Bhajan Sopori

 

 

Classical Dancers in India

 

Dance                        Dancer/s

 

Bharatnatyam                 Mrinalini Sarabhai, Sanyukta Panigrah, Sonal Mansingh, Yamini Krishamurthy

 

Kathak                          Birju Maharaj, Sitara Devi

 

Odissi                           Kelucharan Mohapatra

 

Mohiniattam                  Samyukta Panigrahi, Sonal Mansingh

 

 

Awards and Honours (International)

Nobel Prize

The most prestigious award in the world. It was started in 1900 under the will of Alfred Nobel. The Nobel prizes are presented annually on 10th December (The death anniversary of the founder). It is given in the fields of Peace, Literature, Physics, Chemistry, Physiology / Medicine (from 1901) and Economics (from 1969)

Nobel Winners From India

 

Winners                                                                             Field                                     Year

 

Venkatraman Ramakrishan                                 Chemistry                     2009

 

Amartya Sen                                                     Economics                   1998

 

Subramanyan Chandrasekhar                             Physics                                    1983

 

Mother Teresa                                                   Peace                           1979

 

Hargobind Khorana                                           Medicine                       1968

 

CV Raman                                                        Physics                                    1930

 

Rabindranath Tagore                                         Literature                       1913

 

 

Pulitzer Prize

Instituted in 1917 and named after US publisher Joseph Pulitzer. It is conferred annually in the United States for journalism, literature and music.

Magsaysay Awards

Instituted in 1957 and named after Ramon Magsaysay, the former President of Philippines. The award is given annually for contribution in Public Service, Community Leadership, Journalism, Literature and Creative Arts and International Understanding.

Man Booker Prize

Instituted in 1968, is the highest literary award in the world. Set up by the Booker Company and the British Publisher Association along the lines of the Pulitzer Prize in the USA.

Right Livelihood Award

The Right Livelihood Award was established in 1980. It is also referred as “Alternative Nobel Prize”.

It is to honour those “working on practical and exemplary solutions to the most urgent challenges facing the world today.”

Oscar Awards

Instituted in 1929, these awards are conferred annually by the Academy of Motion Pictures Arts and Sciences, USA in recognition of outstanding cinematic work in various fields.

 

Indian Defence Training Institutions

 

Training Institution                                                   Place

 

Rashtriya Indian Military College (RIMC)               Dehradun

 

National Defence Academy (NDA)                      Khadakwasla, Pune

 

Indian Military Academy (IMA)                            Dehradun

 

Army Cadet College (ACC)                                 Dehradun

 

Officers Training Academy (OTA)                       Chennai

 

College of Combat/Army War College                Mhow (M.P.)

 

High Attitude Warfare School (HAWS)                Gulmarg

 

Counter Insurgency & Jungle Warfare School      Vairengte (Mizoram)

 

College of Defence Management                       Secunderabad (A.P.)

 

Army Air Defence College(AADC)                      Gopalpur (Odisha)

 

Army School of Physical Training (ASPT)           Pune

 

National Defence College                                  New Delhi

 

 
 
 

Ranks of Commissioned Officers

 

Army                                                   Air Force                                           Navy

 

General                                     Air Chief Marshal                       Admiral

 

Lt.General                                 Air Marshal                                Vice Admiral

 

Major General                            Air Vice Marshal                        Rear Admiral

 

Brigadier                                   Air Commodore                         Commodore

 

Colonel                                     Group Captain                           Captain

 

Lt.Colonel                                 Wing Commander                      Commander

 

Major                                        Squadron Leader                       Lt.Commander

 

Captain                                     Flight Lieutenant                        Lieutenant

 

Lieutenant                                 Flying Officer                            Sub-Lieutenant

 

 

Missiles and other Weapons

 

Name                                                   Class                                                     Range

 

Agni                                         Surface-to Surface Missile         850-10000 km

 

Dhanush                                   SRBM                                       350 km

 

Nirbhay                                      Subsonic Cruise Missile                        1000 km

 

Brahmos                                    Supersonic Cruise Missile        290 km

 

Brahmos 2                                 Hypersonic Cruise Missile         290 km

 

Prithvi                                       SRBM                                       150 km

 

Sagarika                                   SLBM                                      700 km-2200 km

 

Shaurya                                                                                           700 km – 2200 km

 

Astra                                        Air to Air Missile

 

Nag                                            Anti-Tank Missile                         25 km

 

The Superlatives

 

(The Largest, Biggest, Smallest, Longest, Highest)

Longest Airliner                                     Boeing 747-8

 

Largest Airport                                      King Abdul Khalid International Airport

 

Highest Airport                                      Bangda Airport,Tibet (818 m)

 

Tallest Animal (on land)                          Giraffe

 

Tallest Building                                      Burj Khalifa, Dubai (818 m)

 

Largest Mammal                                    Blue Whale

 

Largest Bay                                          Hudson Bay, Canada

 

Largest Bird                                          Ostrich

 

Smallest Bird                                        Humming Bird

 

Fastest Bird                                          Swift

 

Tallest office Building                            Petronas Twin Towers, Kuala Lumpur

 

Longest Ship Canal                                Suez Canal

 

Busiest Canal                                        Baltic White Sea Canal

 

Longest Epic                                        The Mahabharata

 

Largest Island                                       Greenland

 

Largest Mosque                                                Jama Masjid

 

Longest Day                                         June 21

 

Largest Delta                                        Sundarbans

 

Largest Desert                                      Sahara, Africa

 

Highest Lake                                         Titicaca (Bolivia)

 

Largest Lake (Fresh water)                     Lake Superior,USA

 

Largest Coral Formation                                    The Great Barrier Reef (Australia)

 

Smallest Continent                                Australia

 

Highest Lake                                         Tibet (The Pamirs)

 

Largest Country (in population)              China

 

Largest Country (in area)                        Russia

 

Biggest Cinema House                          Roxy (New York)

 

Highest City                                         Wen Chuan (Tibet)

 

Largest Dam (Concrete)                         Grand Coulee Dam (USA)

 

Highest Straight Dam                            Bhakra Dam

 

Highest Capital City                               La Paz (Bolivia)

 

Largest Dam (Concrete)                         Grand Coulee Dam (USA)

 

Largest Democracy                               India

 

Wingless Bird                                        Kiwi

 

Most Intelligent Animal                           Chimpanzee

 

Longest wall                                        Great Wall of China

 

Highest Mountain Peak (World)              Mt.Everest (Nepal)

 

Highest Mountain Range                        Himalayas

 

Longest Mountain Range                       Andes (Central South America)

 

Highest Waterfall                                   Salto Angel Falls (Venezuela)

 

Tallest Minar                                          Qutub Minar, Delhi

 

Deepest and biggest Ocean                  The Pacific

 

Largest Archipelago                              Indonesia

 

Coldest Place                                       Verkhoyansk (Siberia, -89.20 Celsius)

 

Driest place                                         Death Valley (California)

 

Hottest Place                                        Al-Aziziyah (Libya, 136 Fahrenheit)

 

Largest Platform (Railway)                     Grand Central Terminal, New York

 

Longest Platform (Railway)                    Kharagpur (1.072 Km)

 

Largest River Basin                               Amazon Basin

 

World’s Rainiest Spot                            Mawsynram, Cherrapunji

 

Largest Gorge                                       Grand Canyon on The Colorado

 

Longest River                                        Nile (6690 km)

 

Longest River Dam                                Hirakud Dam (Odisha)

 

Largest Sea-Bird                                   Albatross

 

Tallest Statue                                        Statue of Liberty, New York

 

Hardest Substance                                Diamond

 

Largest Temple                                     Angkor Vat (Combodia)

 

The Superlatives In India

 

(Biggest, Highest, Largest, Longest, Smallest etc)

 

The longest River                                  The Ganga (2525 km)

 

The longest Canal                                  Indira Gandhi Canal (Rajasthan Canal, 649 km)

 

The longest Dam                                   Hirakud Dam (26 km)

 

The longest Sea Beach                          Marina Beach (Chennai)

 

The largest Saline Water Lake                Chilka Lake (Odisha)

 

The largest Fresh Water Lake                 Kolleru Lake (Andhra Pradesh)

 

The largest Lake                                    Wular Lake (J & K)

 

The highest Dam                                   Bhakhra Dam (740 ft) on Sutlej river (Punjab)

 

The highest Watrfall                               Jog or Garsoppa (Karnataka)

 

The longest River Bridge                        Mahatma Gandhi Setu, Patna (5.575 km)

 

The biggest cantilever Bridge                 Rabindra Setu or Howrah Bridge

 

The State with longest Coastline             Gujarat (1600 km)

 

The longest Sea Bridge                         Anna Indira Gandhi Bridge (T Nadu) or Pamban Bridge (2.3 km)

 

The largest Artificial Lake                       Gobind Sagar Lake

 

The longest River of Southern India        Godavari (1465 km)

 

The Longest Road                                 Grand Trunk Road (Kolkata – Delhi)

 

The longest Corridor                              Ramnathswami Temple Corridor at Rameshwaram (T Nadu)

 

The highest Road                                  Road at Khardungla (Leh-Manali Sector)

 

The highest Airport                                Leh Airport (Ladakh)

 

The largest Desert                                 Thar (Rajasthan)

 

The largest Delta                                   Sunderbans (Paschim Banga)

 

The State with maximum Forest Area      Madhya Pradesh (11.24 %)

 

The largest Zoo                                     Zoological Garden (Kolkata)

 

The biggest Stadium                             Yuva Bharti (Salt Lake) Stadium, Kolkata

 

The longest National Highway                NH-7 (Varanasi to Kanyakumari)

 

The largest Gurudwara                           Golden Temple

 

The largest Cave Temple                        Kailash Temple (Ellora)

 

The highest Peak                                   Godwin Austin, K 2 (8611 m)

 

The largest Mosque                               Jama Masjid (Delhi)

 

The longest Tunnel                                Jawahar Tunnel, Banihal Pass (J & K)

 

The largest Auditorium                           Sri Shanmukhanand Hall (Mumbai)

 

The largest Animal Fair                          Sonepur (Bihar)

 

The largest Cave                                   Amarnath (J & K)

 

The highest Gateway                             Buland Darwaza, Fatepur Sikri (UP)

 

The tallest Statue                                   Gomateswara (Karnataka)

 

The largest Public Sector Bank              State Bank of India

 

The biggest Church                               St. Cathedral, Old Goa

 

The highest Battlefield                           Siachen Glacier (5753 m)

 

 

The Firsts in India (Male)

 

The first Indian to win the Nobel Prize                             Rabindranath Tagore (1913)

 

The first Muslim President of India                                 Dr Zakir Hussain (1967)

 

The first Indian to join the ICS                                        Satyendra Nath Tagore

 

To go in space                                                              Rakesh Sharma (1984)

 

The first Indian Commander-in-chief of India                   General K.M. Cariappa

 

The first Chief Army Staff                                              General Maharaj Rajendra Singhji

 

The first Indian member of the Viceroy’s Executive         Satyendra Prasanno Sinha Council

 

The first Field Marshal of India                                       SHF Manekshaw

 

The first Indian to get Nobel Prize in Physics                  CV Raman (1983)

 

The first Indian to cross English Channel                                    Mihir Sen

 

The first Education Minister of India                               Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel

 

The first person to reach Mt Everest without Oxygen       Sherpa Anga Dorje

 

The first Person to receive Magsaysay Award                 Acharya Vinoba Bhave (1958)

 

The first Indian to receive Nobel Prize in Economics        Amartya Sen (1998)

 

The first Indian Pilot                                                       JRD Tata(1929)

 

 

The Firsts in India (Female)

 

The first to become Miss World                                            Reita Faria (1966)

 

The first Governor of a state in free India                                Mrs Sarojini Naidu

 

The first Chief Minister of a state in free India                           Mrs Sucheta Kripalani

 

The first Speaker of state Assembly                                       Shanno Devi

 

The first Prime Minister                                                       Mrs Indira Gandhi

 

The first Minister in a Government                                        Rajkumari Amrit Kaur (Health Minister)

 

The first to climb Mount Everest                                            Bachendri Pal

 

The first Pilot in India Air Force                                            Harita Kaur Deol

 

The first Airline Pilot                                                          Durga Banerjee

 

The first Olympic Medal Winner                                           Karnam Malleswari (2000 Sydney Olympics)

 

The first Asian Games Gold Medal winner                               Kamaljit Sandhu

 

The first president of United Nations General Assembly Mrs Vijay Laxmi Pandit

 

The first Director General of Police                                        Kanchan C Bhattachrya

 

The first Chief Justice of High Court                                      Mrs Leela Seth

 

The first Judge in Supreme Court                                          Justice M Fathima Beevi (1989)

 

The first IPS officer                                                            Mrs Kiran Bedi

 

The first to receive Ashoka Chakra                                        Neerja Bhanot

 

The first Judge                                                                 Anna Chandy (1937)

 

 

Countries, Capitals and Currencies

 

Country                               Capital                                 Currency

 

Afghanistan                     Kabul                             Afghani

 

Algeria                           Algiers                           Algerian Dinar

 

Angola                           Luanda                           Kwanza

 

Argentina                        Buenos Aires                   Peso

 

Australia                         Canberra                        Australian Dollar

 

Austria                           Vienna                           Euro

 

Bangladesh                     Dhaka                            Taka

 

Belgium                          Brussels                         Euro

 

Bhutan                           Thimpu                          Ngultrum

 

Brazil                             Brasilia                           Cruzeiro Real

 

Cambodia                       Phnom-Penh                   Riel

 

Canada                          Ottawa                           Canadian Dollar

 

Chile                             Santiago                         Peso

 

China                            Beijing                           Yuan

 

Columbia                        Bogota                           Peso

 

Denmark             Copenhagen                   Krone

 

East Timor                      Dili                                US Dollar

 

Egypt                             Cairo                             Pound

 

Ethiopia                         Adis Ababa                      Birr

 

Finland                          Helsinki                          Euro

 

France                           Paris                              France

 

Georgia                          Tbilisi                            Lari

 

Germany                        Berlin                             Euro

 

Greece                           Athens                           Euro

 

Hungary                         Budapest                        Forint

 

Iceland                           Reykjavik                        Krona

 

India                              New Delhi                       Rupee

 

Indonesia                       Jakarta                           Rupiah

 

Iran                               Tehran                           Riyal

 

Iraq                               Baghdad                                    Dinar

 

Israel                             Jerusalem                       Shekel

 

Italy                               Rome                             Euro

 

Japan                            Tokyo                            Yen

 

Kenya                            Astana                           Tenge

 

Kenya                            Nairobi                           Shilling

 

North Korea                     Pyongyang                     Won

 

Kuwait                            Kuwait City                      Kuwait Dinar

 

South Korea                    Seoul                             Won

 

Kyrgyzstan                      Bishkek                          Som

 

Latvia                             Riga                              Lats

 

Liberia                            Manrovia                        Liberian Dollar

 

Malaysia                         Kuala Lumpur                   Ringgit

 

Maldives                         Male                              Rufiyaa

 

Mauritius             Port Louis                       Rupee

 

Montenegro                    Podgorica                       Euro

 

Morocco                         Rabat                             Dirham

 

Mozambique                    Maputo                           Metical

 

Myanmar                        Naypyidaw                      Kyat

 

Namibia                          Windhoek                       Namibian Dollar

 

Nepal                             Kathmandu                      Rupaia

 

Netherlands                    Amsterdam                      Euro

 

New Zealand                   Wellington                      New Zealand Dollar

 

Nigeria                           Abuja                             Naira

 

Norway                          Oslo                              Krone

 

Pakistan                         Islamabad                       Rupee

 

Philippines                     Manila                            Peso

 

Poland                           Budapest                        Zloty

 

Portugal                         Lisbon                           Euro

 

Qatar                             Doha                             Riyal

 

Russia                           Moscow                         Ruble

 

Saudi Arabia                    Riyadh                           Riyal

 

Somalia                          Mogadishu                      Somali Shilling

 

Singapore                       Singapore                       Dollar

 

South Africa                     Pretoria                          Rand

 

Spain                             Madrid                           Euro

 

Sri Lanka                        Colombo                                    Rupee

 

Sudan                            Khartoum                        Dinar

 

Sweden                          Stockholm                      Krona

 

Switzerland                     Bern                              Swiss Franc

 

Taiwan                           Taipei                            New Taiwan Dollar

 

Tajikistan                        Dushanbe                       Somoni

 

Thailand                         Bangkok                         Baht

 

Turkey                           Istanbul                          Lira

 

Uganda                          Kampala                         Uganda Shilling

 

Ukraine                          Kiew                              Hryvnia

 

UK                                London                          Pound Sterling

 

US                                Washington DC               Dollar

 

Uruguay                         Montevideo                     Peso

 

Venezuela                       Caracas                          Bolivar

 

Zimbabwe                       Harare                            Dollar

 

 

 

 

Parliaments of the World

 

Country                             Parliament Name             Country                         Parliament Name

 

Bangladesh                   Jatiya Sansad                     Germany                Bundestag

 

Bhutan                          Tasongadu                           Israel                       Knesset

 

China                            National People Congress   Pakistan                 National Assembly

 

India                             Sansad                                 Spain                  Cortes

 

Japan                           Diet

 

Nepal                            Rashtriya Panchayat                                               Storting

 

Russia                          Duma                                   Sweden                Riksdag

 

USA                             Congress                             Switzerland                       Federal Assembly

 

 

 

National Emblems of Major Countries

 

Country                    Emblem                       Country                 Emblem

 

Australia                      Kangaroo                   Bangladesh                   Water Lily

 

Belgium                       Lion                             Canada                          White Lily

 

India                            Lioned Capital

 

UK                                Rose                           USA                              Golden Rod

 

Pakistan                       Crescent                     Spain                            Eagle

 

 

 

Geographical Nicknames

 

Blue Mountains                            Nilgiri Hills     City Beautiful                          Chandigarh

 

City of Magnificent Buildings           Washington   City of Palaces                       Kolkata

 

City of Seven Hills             Rome           City of Golden Gate                  San Francisco

 

Cockpit of Europe                         Belgium         Dark Continent                        Africa

 

Eternal City                                 Rome             Forbidden City                        Lhasa (Tibet)

 

Garden City                                 Chicago         Gift of the Nile                        Egypt

 

Hermit Kingdom                           Korea             Holy Land                              Palestine

 

Island Continent                           Australia         Manchester of the East           Kanpur

 

Isle of Pearls                                Bahrain            Island of Cloves                    Zanzibar

 

Key to the Mediterranean                Gibraltar           Land of Maple                      Canada

 

Land of Thousand Lakes                Finland             Land of White Elephant         Thailand

 

Pearl of the Pacific                        Guayaquil Port Roof of the World                 The Pamirs (Central Asia)

 

Spice Garden of India                    Kerala Sugar   Bowl of the World                  Cuba

 

White Man’s Grave                        Guinea Coast   Windy City                          Chicago

 

 

 

Seven Wonders of the World

 

Ancient World                                  Modern World                                   The ‘New’ Wonder

 

The Colossus                              Channel Tunnel                           Chichen itza, Maxico

 

The Great Pyramid of Giza              CN Tower                                   Christ Redeemer, Brazil

 

The Hanging Gardens of Babylonia  Empire State Building                     The Great Wall, china

 

The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus      Golden Gate Bridge                      Machu Picchu, Peru

 

The Statue of Zeus at Olympia          Itapúa Dam                                  Petra, Jordan

 

The Light House of Alexandria         Delta works                                 Colosseum, Italy

 

The Temple of Artemis at Ephesus    Panama Canal                              The Taj Mahal, India

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Geographical Discoveries

 

Discovery                            Discoverer                          Discovery                            Discoverer

 

America                          Columbus                        Sea route to India               Vasco-da-Gama

 

Solar System                   Copernicus                     Circumnavigation of world  Magellan

 

Planets                           Kepler                            Mount Everest                  Edmund Hillary

 

South Pole                      Amundsen                      First person to set

foot on the moon        Neil Armstrong

 

North Pole                      Robert Peary                    Tasmania Island               Tasman

 

China                            Marco Polo                     Cape of Good Hope          Baunho Romelodeoes

 

 

Important Symbols

 

Pen                                                      Culture and Civilization

 

Lotus                                                    Culture and Civilization

 

Red Cross                                            Medical Aid and Hospital

 

Red Flag                                               Revolution, Sign of danger

 

Black Flag                                            Protest

 

Yellow Flag                                           Flown on ships/ vehicles carrying patients suffering

from infectious diseases

 

Flag flown upside down                         Distress

 

White Flag                                            Peace

 

Pigeon or Dove                                     Peace

 

A blindfolded woman with a balanced scale Justice

 

Black strip on face arm                          Mourning / Protest

 

Skull on two bones crossing diagonally   Danger

 

Wheel (Chakra)                                      Progress

 

Flag flown at half mast                          National Mourning

 

Olive Branch                                         Peace

 

 

 

Intelligence Agencies

 

Detective Agency                                  Country         Detective Agency                    Country

 

Central External Liaison Deptt             China             Mossad                             Israel

 

Central intelligence Agency (CIA)         USA               Naicho                               Japan

Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)

 

Inter Services Intelligence (ISI)               Pakistan         Mukhabarat                      Egypt

 

Research and Analysis Wing (RAW)     India               Al Mukhabarat                   Iraq

 

MI (Military Intelligence)-5 and 6             UK

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

United Nations Organization (UNO)

 

  • The United Nations (UN) is a global organization formed on 24th October, 1945. It came into existence after World War II, when the leaders of the world including American President Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Churchill, decided to create an organization for global peace.

 

  • The original membership of 51 nations has grown to 193 members, the 193rd member being the newly created South Sudan.

 

  • The United Nations Headquarters is in New York City. The UN also has offices in Geneva (Switzerland), and Vienna (Austria)

 

  • Six official language are spoken and used in documents at the UN i.e.

 

Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish

 

  • The General Assembly: The General Assembly is the main place for discussions and policy making in the United Nations.

 

  • The Security Council: The Security Council has primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security. The Security Council is made up of 15 members. There are five permanent member of the Security Council i.e. China, France, Russia, United Kingdom and USA and 10 non-permanent members elected for 2 years terms starting on 1st

 

  • The International Court of Justice (ICJ), located in The Hague, Netherlands, is the primary judicial organ of the UN. Established in 1945 by the United Nations Charter, the Court began work in 1946, as the successor to the permanent court of International Justice.

 

  • Trygve Lie of Norway (1946-52) was the first Secretary-General of the UN. Ban Ki-Moon of South Korea is the present Secretary General of the UN.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Some Important UN Agencies

 

Name                                               Estd in        Headquarters                       Purpose

 

International Labour                     1919          Geneva        To improve work conditions and living

Organization (ILO)                                                            standards of workers.

 

World Health Organization            1948          Geneva        Attainment of highest possible

(WHO)                                                                            level of health by all people

 

United Nations Educational          1946          Paris            To promote collaboration

among nations through

education organisation (UNESCO)

science and culture.

 

 

International Atomic Energy          1957        Vienna          To promote peaceful uses of

Agency (IAEA)                                                                 atomic energy.

 

United National International          1946        New York      To promote children’s welfare

Children’s Emergency Fund                                            world over

(UNICEF)

 

International Monetary Fund          1945        Washington   Promotes international

DC             monetary cooperation

 

United Nations Environmental       1972          Nairobi         Promotes international co-

Programme (UNEP)                                                          operation in human environment

 

Food and Agriculture                   1945          Rome          To improve living condition of

Organization (FAO)                                                           rural population.

 

World Trade Organization              1995          Geneva        Setting rules for world trade

.

 

 

United Nations Development         1965          New York     Helps developing countries

Programme (UNDP)                                                          increase wealth-producing                                                                                                        capabilities of their natural and                                                                                                   human resources.

 

International Development             1960          Washington An affiliate of the World Bank

Association (IDA)                                                             Bank, aims to help under-developed                                                                                         countries raise living standards.

 

International                                 1947          Geneva       Sets international regulations for

Telecommunication (ITU)                                                   radio telephone and space                                                                                                         radio communications.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Other International Organizations and Groups

 

 

Name                                   Estd.                     HQ.                        Members            Objective

 

The Commonwealth       1926                 London             54                     Originally known as the                                                                                                              British Commonwealth of                                                                                                           Nations. An       association of                                                                                                  sovereign and independent                                                                                                        states which formally made up                                                                                                          the British empire.

 

Asia Pacific Economic  1989                 Singapore         21                     To promote trade and investment Cooperation (APEC)                                                             in the Pacific basin.

 

Asian Development       1966                 Manila               67                     To promote regional economic

Bank (ADB)                                                                                           cooperation

 

Association of South     1967                 Djakarta            10                     Regional, economic, social East Asian Nations                                                                           cultural cooperation among the (ASEAN)                                                                                                non-communist             countries of                                                                                                      South-East Asia.

 

Commonwealth of         1991                 Minsk               11                     To coordinate mutual Independent States                                   (Belarus)                                   relations and to

(CIS)                                                                                                             provide a mechanism for the

orderly dissolution of the

erstwhile USSR

 

Group of 8 (G-8)            1985                 —                     9                      To promote co-operation

among     major non-communist

economic powers.

 

Group of 15(G-15)         1989                 Geneva             18                     To promote economic

(Switzerland)                             co-operation among

developing nations

 

International Olympic     1894                 Lausanne          205                   To promote the Olympic ideas Committee (IOC)                          (Switzerland)                              and games.

 

Non-Aligned                  1961                 ——                  118                   Political co-operation and Movement (NAM)                                                                               separate itself from both USA

and USSR (in cold war era.)

 

European Union            1965                 Brussels           27                     To create a united Europe in (w.e.f.July1,1967)                           (Belgium)                                  which members would                                                                                                              have such strong economic                                                                                                       and political bonds that war

would cease to happen.

North Atlantic Treaty      1949                 Brussels           28                     Mutual defence and

Organization (NATO)                              (Belgium)                                     cooperation

 

 

 

 

Organization of             1959                 Vienna              12                     Attempts to set global prices by

Petroleum Exporting

Countries                                              (Austria)                                    controlling oil production and (OPEC)                                                                                                    also pursue members’

interests in trade and

development

 

Amnesty International    1961                 London (UK)                             To keep a watch over human

(AI)                                                                                                       rights violations worldwide.

 

World Wildlife Fund       1961                 Gland               All                    To preserve wildlife

For Nature (WWF)                                  (Switzerland)     Countries

 

 

 

 

Books and Authors

 

Book                                                                   Author

 

 
50 Years of India’s Independence                       DS Subramanian

 

As You Like It                                                   William Shakespeare

 

A Brief History of Time                                      Stephen Hawkings

 

A Divine Comedy                                              Dante

 

A Passage to India                                            EM Forster

 

A Prisoner’s Scrap                                            LK Advani

 

A Secular Agenda                                             Arun Shourie

 

A Suitable Boy                                                 Vikram Seth

 

Against The Day                                                Thomas Pynchon

 

Ajata Shatru                                                      Jai Shankar Prasad

 

All the Prime Minister’s Men                               Janardhan Thakur

 

An American Tragedy                                        Thedore Dreiser

 

An Area of Darkness                                         VS Naipaul

 

An Autobiography                                             Jawaharlal Nehru

 

An Equal Music                                                 Vikram Seth

 

Anand Math                                                      Bankim Chandra Chatterji

 

Anna Karenina                                                   Leo Tolstoy

 

Antony and Cleopatra                                        William Shakespeare

 

Arabian Nights                                                  Sir Richard Burton

 

As I See                                                            Kiran Bedi

 

Between Hope and History                                 Bill Clinton

 

Bhagwad Gita                                                   Ved Vyas

 

Budha Charitam                                     Aswaghosha

 

Business@ the Speed of Thought                      Bill Gates

 

Circle of Reason                                               Amitav Ghosh

 

City of joy                                                         Dominique Lapierre

 

Clear Light of the Day                                        Anita Desai

 

Comedy of Errors                                             William Shakespeare

 

Communist Manifesto                                        Karl Marx and Fredrik Engels

 

Comus                                                              John Milton

 

Crime and Punishment                                       Dostoevsky

 

Das Kapital                                                     Karl Marx

 

David Copperfield                                             Charles Dickens

 

Death of City                                                    Amrita Pritam

 

Descent of Man                                                            Charles Darwin

 

Devdas                                                             Sarat Chandra Chatterji

 

Development As Freedom                                 Amartya Sen

 

Discovery of India                                             Jawaharlal Nehru

 

Dreams of My Father                                         Barak Obama

 

Durgeshnandini                                                 Bankim Chandra Chatterji

 

Earth                                                                Emile Zola

 

Essays on Gita                                                 Sri Aurobindo Ghosh

 

Ethics for New Millennium                                  Dalai Lama

 

Fire on the Mountain                                          Anita Desai

 

Freedom from Fear                                           Aung San Suu Kyi

 

Free Rajpath to Lokpath                                                Vijaya Raje Scindia

 

Gita Govinda                                                     Jayadev

 

Gita Rahasya                                                    Bal Gangadhar Tilak

 

Gitanjali                                                            Rabindranath Tagore

 

Glass Palace                                                     Amitav Ghosh

 

Glimpses of World History                                 Jawaharlal Nehru

 

Golden Threshold                                              Sarojini Naidu

 

Gora                                                                 Rabindranath Tagore

 

Godan                                                              Premchand

 

Greater Common Good                                     Arundhati Roy

 

Gulliver’s Travels                                              Jonathan Swift

 

Half a Life                                                         V S Naipaul

 

I Dare                                                               Kiran Bedi

 

Impossible Allies                                               C Raja Mohan

 

India for Sale                                                    Chitra Subramaniam

 

India A Wounded Civilization                              V S Naipaul

 

Indian Economy: Essays on Money And Finance            Dr C Rangarajan

 

Inspite of the Gods                                           Edward Luce

 

Jail Diary                                                          Chandrasekhar

 

Kargi l: From Surprise to Victory                                    Gen V P Malik

 

Koraner Nari                                                     Taslima Nasreen

 

Law, Lawyers and Judges                                  H R Bhardwaj

 

Letters Between a Father and Son                      V S Naipaul

 

Living History                                                    Hillary Clinton

 

Love and Longing in Bombay                            Vikram Chandra

 

Magic Seeds                                                     V S Naipaul

 

My Truth                                                           Indira Gandhi

 

Ode to A Nightingale                                         John Keats

 

One Night at the Call Centre                               Chetan Bhagat

 

Pakistan: The Gathering Storm                           Benazir Bhutto

 

Politics                                                             Aristotle

 

Power Politics                                                   Arundhati Roy

 

Prison Days                                                      Vijayalakshmi Pandit

 

Prison Diary                                                      Jayaprakash Narayan

 

Robinson Crusoe                                              Daniel Deole

 

Revolution 2020                                                Chetan Bhagat

 

River of Smoke                                                 Amitav Ghose

 

Shape of Beast                                                 Arundhati Roy

 

Sea of Poppies                                                 Amitav Ghose

 

Snakes and Ladders                                          Gita Mehta

 

Sons and Lovers                                               D H Lawrence

 

The Algebra of Infinite Justice                            Arundhati Roy

 

The Inheritance of Loss                                      Kiran Desai

 

The Argumentative Indian                                   Amartya Sen

 

The Broken Wings                                             Sarojini Naidu

 

The Company of Women                                   Khushwant Singh

 

The Final Passage                                             Caryl Phillips

 

The Good Earth                                                 Pearl S Buck

 

The God of small Things                                    Arundhati Roy

 

The Guide                                                         R K Narayan

 

The Heart of India                                              Mark Tully

 

The Idiot                                                           Fyodor Dostoyevsky

 

The Line of Beauty                                            Alan Hillinghurst

 

The President                                                    Miguel Angel Asturias

 

My Experiments With Truth                                Mahatma Gandhi

 

The Three Musketeers                                        Alexander Dumas

 

The Tin Drum                                                     Gunter Gross

 

The Wealth of Nations                                       Adam Smith

 

The World id flat                                                Thomas Friedman

 

Time Machine                                                    Herbert George Wells

 

Train to Pakistan                                               Khushwant Singh

 

Untouchable                                                      Mulk Raj Anand

 

 

 

Important Days of the Year

 

Month                             Day

 

January

 

9                                  NRI Day

 

12                                 National Youth Day (Birthday of Swami Vivekanand)

 

25                                 National Tourism Day

 

26                                 Indian Republic Day

 

30                                 Martyr’s Day (Mahatma Gandhi’s Martyrdom)

 

February

 

28                                 National Science Day (Anniversary of Discovery of Raman Effect)

 

March

 

8                                  International Women’s Day

 

15                                 World Consumer Rights Day

 

22                                 World Water Day

 

April

 

7                                  World Health Day

 

22                                 World Earth Day

 

23                                   World Book Day

 

May

      

1                                  International Labour Day (May Day)

 

31                                   No Tobacco Day

 

8                                              World Red Cross Day

 

June

 

5                                     World Environment Day

 

July

 

4                                  American Independence Day

 

11                                 World Population Day

 

August

 

6                                  Hiroshima Day

 

9                                  August Kranti Divas

 

12                                 International Youth Day

 

15                                 India’s Independence Day

 

September

 

5                                  Teachers’ Day (Dr Radhakrishan’s Birthday)

 

8                                  International Literacy Day (UNESCO)

 

14                                 Hindi Day

 

27                                 World Tourism Day

 

October

 

2                                  International Non-Violence Day,

Lal Bahadur Shastri and Mahatma Gandhi’s Birthday

 

24                                 United Nations Day

 

November

 

14                                 Children’s Day

 

December

 

1                                  World AIDS Day

 

10                                 Human Rights Day

 

 

 

MAJOR INDIAN FESTIVALS

India being a highly spiritual and multi-cultural society, festivals are at the heart of Indian life. The numerous festivals held throughout the year offer a unique way of seeing Indian culture at its best. The following provides you with a glimpse of some important festivals:

DEEPAWALI 

The “Festival of Lights” is known for fireworks, small clay lamps, and candles that are lit during the celebrations. These lights are said to represent the victory of good over evil, and brightness over darkness. The candlelight makes Diwali a very warm and bright festival, and it is observed with much joy and happiness.

GANESH CHATURTHI

The spectacular 11-day Ganesh Chaturthi festival honors the birth of the beloved Hindu elephant-headed god Lord Ganesha. The festival sees huge, elaborately crafted statutes of Ganesha installed in homes and podiums, especially constructed and beautifully decorated. At the end, the statutes are paraded through the streets, accompanied by much singing and dancing, and then submerged in the ocean. 

HOLI

The “Festival of Colors”. Holi is a very carefree festival that’s great fun to participate in if you don’t mind getting wet and dirty. The Lathh Maar Holi of Mathura is famous the world over.

DUSSEHRA, DURGA PUJA, NAVRATRA

The first nine days of this festival are known as Navaratri, and are filled with dance in honor of the Mother Goddess. The tenth day, called Dussehra, is devoted to celebrating the defeat of the demon king Ravana by Lord Rama. It also coincides with the victory of the revered warrior Goddess Durga over the evil buffalo demon Mahishasura.

SHRI KRISHNA JANMASHTMI

Krishna Janmashtami commemorates the birthday of Lord Krishna. An extremely fun part of the festival involves people climbing on each other and forming a human pyramid to reach and break open clay pots filled with curd, which have been strung up high from buildings (dahi haandi).

KERALA ELEPHANT RACES

The Kerala temples are renowned for their exotic temple festivals. The large processions of elephants, are the main attractions of these festivals. The processions are accompanied by colorful floats, drummers and other musicians.

 

 

ONAM

Onam is a traditional ten-day harvest festival that marks the homecoming of the mythical King Mahabali. It is a festival rich in culture and heritage. People decorate the ground in front of their houses with flowers arranged in beautiful patterns to welcome the King.

 

PUSHKAR CAMEL FAIR

Thousands of camels converge on the desert town of Pushkar, Rajasthan for the Pushkar Camel Fair. The camels are dressed up, paraded, entered into beauty contests, raced, and of course traded. It’s a great opportunity to witness an old, traditional style Indian festival.

 

PONGAL

The harvest festival in Tamil Nadu, to commemorate the start of the harvesting season.

 

BIHU

The harvest festival in Assam, to commemorate the start of the harvesting season.

 

BAISAKHI

The harvest festival in Panjab, to commemorate the start of the harvesting season.

 

NAUCHANDI FAIR

A fair devoted to communal harmony, held annually in Meerut.

 

PHOOL WAALON KI SAIR

A festival of gardens in Delhi, started to promote communal harmony.

 

 

 

 

 

POPULAR NICKNAMES

Father of the Nation       Mahatma Gandhi          Bapu                            Mahatma Gandhi

 

Grand Old Man of India             Dadabhai Naoroji         Iron Man of India           Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel

 

Man of Peace               Lal Bahadur Shastri      Punjab Kesari                Lala Lajpat Rai

 

Andhra Kesari               T. Prakasam                 Sher-e-Kashmir Sheikh Abdullah

 

Bangabandhu                Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Gurudev                       Rabindranath Tagore

 

Guruji                            M.S. Golvalkar                         Desh Ratna                   Dr. Rajendra Prasad

 

Ajatshatru                     Dr. Rajendra Prasad      Young Turk                   Chandra Shekhar

 

Tau                               Chaudhury Devi Lal      Sahid-e-Azam                Bhagat Singh

 

Nightingale of India       Sarojini Naidu                Udanpari                       P.T. Usha

 

Vishwa Kavi                  Rabindranath Tagore    Sardar                          Vallabhbhai Patel

 

Babuji                           Jagjeevan Ram            Napoleon of India          Samudra Gupta

 

Shakespeare of India     Mahakavi Kalidas         Machiavelli of India        Chanakya

 

Father of India Renaissance Ram Mohan Roy    First Scientific Man of India Raja Ram Mohan Roy

 

King Makers in History   Saiyad Bandhu             Haryana Hurricane         Kapil Dev

 

Little Master                  Sunil Gavaskar             Magician of Hockey      Dhyanchand

 

Kuvempu                      K.V. Puttappa               Little Corporal               Napoleon Bonaparte

 

Man of Destiny            Napoleon Bonaparte     Fuehrer                         Adolf Hitler

 

Swar Kokila                   Lata Mangeshkar         Flying Sikh                    Milkha Singh

 

Chacha                         Jawahar Lal Nehru         Netaji                            Subhash Chander Bose

 

Father of English Poetry Geoffery Chaucer        Maid of Orleans            Joan of Arc

 

Milkman of India            Dr. Verghese Kurien      Turbonator                    Harbhajan Singh

 

The Little Master            Sunil Gavaskar              Master Blaster               Sachin Tendulkar

 

The Wall                        Rahul Dravid                 Anna                             C.N. Annadurai

 

Grand Old Man of India Dada Bhai Noroji           Poet of the East                        Dr. Mohammed Iqbal

 

Qayad-i-Azam               Mohammed Ali Jinnah   Adi Kavi                        Valmeeki

 

Bard of Avon                William Shakespeare     Bard of Twickenham      Alexander Pope

 

Deenabandhu               C.F. Andrews                Deshbandhu                 C.R. Dass

 

Desert Fox                    Gen. Rommel                J.P, Loknayak               Jayaprakash Narayan

Kaviguru                       Rabindranath Tagore     Lady with the Lamp       Florence Nightingale

 

Lokamanya                   Bal Gangadhar Tilak      Mahamana                   Madan Mohan Malaviya

Mahatma                       M K Gandhi                   Maid of Orleans            Joan of Arc

Man of Blood and Iron   Bismarck                      Panditji                         Jawaharlal Nehru

Rajaji or ‘CR’                 C. Rajagopalachari        Saint of the Gutters       Mother Teresa

Qaid-e-Azam                 Mohammed Ali Jinnah   Father Teresa                Abdus Sattar Eidhi

 

Tooti-e-Hind                  Amir Khusro

 

Father of Indian Missile Programme                                                       Dr. A P J Abul Kalam

 

Father of Green Revolution in India                                                         Dr. M S Swaminatahn

 

Badshah Khan/Frontier Gandhi                                                               Abdul Ghaffar Khan

 

Grandfather of Indian Cinema                                                                 Dhundiraj Govind Phalke

 

Lal, Bal, Pal                                                                                          Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar

Tilak and Bipin Chandra Pal

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HISTORICAL, POLITICAL, CONSTITUTIONAL AND DIPLOMATIC TERMS

 

ADJOURNMENT MOTION
A motion moved by a member in a legislative house (assembly/ parliament) to draw the attention of the government to a matter of urgent public importance or interest.

 

AMNESTY
A general pardon, especially for political offences against the State. In India, such an amnesty is typically given on the eve of the Independence Day to political prisoners, who have displayed good conduct during their stay in the jail.

 

APARTHEID (MALANISM)
An African term which means complete segregation of the non-whites from the whites (racial discrimination). Practiced in South Africa in the past until it was dismantled by the FW de Clark government in the 1990s in response to Nelson Mandela’s historic struggle.

 

ARMISTICE
A policy of economic self-sufficiency of a nation. Secured at the cost of other nations; especially practiced by many nations during 1920.

 

BLACK-OUT
A sudden extinction of all lights; a safeguard against air raids. Can also refer to a power outage during times of peace.

 

BICAMERAL SYSTEM
The form of legislature which has two Chambers or Houses as opposed to a unicameral system having only one House of legislature. For example, Indian Parliament, State Legislature in some states like Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.

 

BUFFER STATE
A smaller state lying between potentially hostile larger States, reducing the risk of war between them. Poland was a buffer State between Germany and Russia; Belgium is a buffer State between France and Germany.
CABINET GOVERNMENT
A form of government in which the Executive, a Council of Ministers, is responsible to the legislature. It is also called the parliamentary system.

 

COLD WAR
A state of apparent peace between two powerful countries or blocs, but they exhibit mutual hostility through press, radio, etc. It is often used to describe the relationship that had existed between the Soviet Union and the Western Powers since 1947. The cold war has now almost abated with the frequent summits between President Bush and Mr. Gorbachev, the Soviet leader

 

CHARGE D’AFFAIRES
An official in a diplomatic mission or an embassy who is an acting ambassador in his absence.

 

CONSULS
Commercial representatives abroad are styled as Consuls.

 

CONDOMINIUM
A joint rule of a territory by two or more nations, as Sudan was under the joint rule of England and Egypt till 1955.
CASTING VOTE
The deciding vote of the presiding officer of the house / chamber in case of a tie on an issue.
DIALECTICAL MATERIALISM
A logical method of historical analysis associated with the name of Karl Marx and his collaborator, Engles. Marx had borrowed this method from Hegel, according to whom history was the product of the clash of opposing ideas. He viewed history as a conflict between two opposing forces, thesis and anti-thesis, which is resolved by the emergence of a new force, synthesis. Present conditions are due to a class struggle between the capitalists, who are motivated by private profit, and the workers, who resist exploitation. This conflict will inevitably lead to a revolution by which the workers will overthrow capitalism and capture power themselves. Marxian ideology has not stood the ravages of time. It is being discarded by most of the countries which had embraced it earlier.
DEMAGOGY
Inciting people by lies, false promises, half-truths, appeal to passions as opposed to reason and logic.
EXTRADITION
Handing over an accused fugitive for justice by one country to the other.
FOURTH ESTATE
It refers to the Press.
FIFTH COLUMN
A term used to describe traitors, people who help the enemy in times of war.
FASCISM
An anti-Communist, dictatorial political system evolved by Mussolini and his followers in Italy after 1922. The Italian fascism was a model for similar movements in other countries including Germany where it evolved into Nazism.
GLASNOST
A term which implies more openness in the society and freeing the media from overwhelming state control.
HOTLINE
A direct telephone between two nations, especially which are hostile to each other, to prevent accidental war. Any line of speedy communication ready for an emergency.
IRON CURTAIN
A term first used by Winston Churchill for such countries which do not give other countries any information concerning their internal affairs. The term was applied to the erstwhile Soviet Russia and her satellites.
McCarthyism
The policy of screening the U.S. officials to discover their communist tendencies, adopted by John McCarthy, a U.S. Senator. It evoked strong protests from all quarters thus resulting in the censuring of his policy.
MARXISM
The thought developed by Kari Marx, along with Engels. According to him, the State throughout history has been a tool for the exploitation of the masses by a dominant class; class struggle has been the main tool of historical change; the capitalist State contains the seeds of its own destruction; a revolution is inevitable; and after a transitional period known as the dictatorship of the proletariat, a stateless and classless society will come into being.
NATURALIZATION
A process by which an alien is allowed to enjoy the privileges of a natural born citizen.
OLIGARCHY
A government in which the supreme power is in a few privileged hands.

 

PANCHSHEEL
Five principles enunciated by the Prime Ministers of India and of People’s Republic of China in 1954 as the basis for international co-operation. They are:
1. Mutual respect for each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty
2. Non-aggression
3. Non-interference in each other’s internal affairs
4. Equality and mutual benefits
5. Peaceful co-existence

 

PARLIAMENTARY GOVERNMENT
As contrasted by the presidential system, parliamentary government is one in which the real executive (a cabinet headed by the Prime Minister) is responsible to the legislature. It is also called the cabinet form of government.

 

PERESTROIKA
A term used to imply restructuring of the economic system to increase production and make available more consumer products to the people.

 

PLEBISCITE
A referendum regarding self-determination of future political status. Many organizations have been demanding a plebiscite in Kashmir to decide its future political status, whether the Kashmiris want to live with India or Pakistan or independently.

 

PRESIDENTIAL SYSTEM
A system of government in which the President is the real executive head and is independent of legislative control as in the U.S.A. The President is the Head of State as well as of the Government.

 

QUORUM
The bare minimum number of officers or members of a society or legislature who must be present to make the proceedings valid.

 

REFERENDUM
A process by which all important laws and amendments, after having been passed by the legislature, are put to the vote of the electorate. The people may ratify or reject them. This procedure is mostly followed in Switzerland.

 

REPUBLIC
A State, especially a democratic one, which has a non-hereditary head (the President) as distinguished from a State like Britain which has a hereditary head (King or Queen) with limited powers, of course.

 

RESPONSIBLE GOVERNMENT
The form of Government in which the executive is responsible to the elected legislature. It is also called parliamentary or cabinet form of government.

 

RULE OF LAW
Means that all persons are equal in the eye of law without any distinction of status, colour, caste and sex, and that the government cannot exercise any arbitrary powers.

 

SNAP DIVISION
A vote or division taken unexpectedly and in which the respective strength of different parties may not be correctly indicated.

 

SOCIALISM
A political and economic theory according to which land, transport, chief industries, natural resources (e.g. coal, water-power), etc. should be owned and managed by the State, or by public bodies in the interests of the community as a whole.

 

SPOILS SYSTEM
The practice of giving offices as reward by a successful party leader to his partisans for their services. It prevails mostly in the U.S.A.

 

TOTALITARIANISM
A system in which the State (or those in power) dominates every sphere of an individual’s life.

 

TERRITORIAL WATERS
Refer to the belt of sea under a State’s territorial jurisdiction. For example, India’s territorial jurisdiction runs up to 12 nautical miles.

 

VETO
The constitutional or legal right of a person to reject or prohibit something.

 

WHIP
Organizing secretary of a parliamentary party, with authority over its members to maintain discipline and ensure attendance at parliamentary debates and voting. Whip also means an order given by such a secretary to members of the party to attend a debate and vote.

 

ZIONISM
Literally pertaining to the Jews. This movement was started towards the end of the 19th century to establish a national home for the Jews in Palestine. The terms now implies the expanding frontiers of Israel.

 

 

 

IMPORTANT LEGAL TERMS

 

COPYRIGHT
The exclusive right enjoyed by an artist to the use of his artistic work. It could be regarding a book, music or any other work of art.

 

CIRCUMSTANTIAL EVIDENCE
Evidence based on the circumstances prevailing in a particular case, and strong enough to establish the charges.

 

CAVEAT EMPTOR
A legal proverb meaning ‘Let the buyer beware’ i.e. that the buyer purchases an item at his own risk.

 

CONTEMPT OF COURT
Disobedience of a court order. Such an act is punishable by the Court concerned.

 

DECREE
The decision given by a court or arbitrator.

 

LEASE
A contract by which a lessor, usually for rent, allows the use of land or building to a lessee for a specified time.

 

LIBEL
Any publication or statement designed to harm someone’s public reputation or character.

 

MORTGAGE
An agreement transferring property to the creditor as a security for repayment of a debt.

 

PLAINTIFF
Is the person who brings a suit in a court of law.

 

PROXY
A person who acts for another one or the written authority for such action. For instance, a company allows a person to attend its Annual General Meeting as a proxy for someone else who cannot do so for some reason.

 

 

 

 

IMPORTANT GEOGRAPHICAL TERMS

 

ALLUVIUM
The sedimentary matter (pebbles, soil etc.) deposited by rivers. It makes the soil fertile. Alluvial cones are formed in the course of river flow.

 

ANTI-CYCLONE
A high-pressure wind which blows outwards from the centre. The direction is clockwise in the northern hemisphere and counter-clockwise in the southern hemisphere. Associated with dry, sunny weather.

 

ANTHRACITE
A lustrous, compact variety of coal containing around 90 % carbon. Known as the purest coal, it burns slowly without smoke.
ANTIPODES
A region on the opposite side of the earth.

 

APOGEE
The configuration when the moon or any other planet in its orbit, is at its greatest distance from the earth.

 

APHELION
The position of the earth in its orbit when it is at its maximum distance from the sun.

 

ARCHIPELAGO
A group of islands, such as the Indonesian archipelago.

 

ARTESIAN WELL
Derived from Artois in France where the first such wells were constructed. Underground water is reached by sinking a shaft from the surface, and the water rises to the surface by hydrostatic pressure. Common in Australia, Punjab (Hoshiarpur) and Himachal Pradesh (Kangra District).

 

ATMOSPHERE
The gaseous envelope around the earth, which extends from 200-300 miles above the earth. Consists of several gases, nitrogen being the most prominent.

 

ATOLL
A coral reef shaped like a horse-shoe or ring with a lagoon in the centre e.g. Lakshadweep Islands.

 

AXIS
An imaginary line joining the North and South Poles, passing through the centre of the earth. The earth rotates on this axis.

 

AEOLIAN
Relating to the wind. Aeolian deposits are transported and deposited on the earth’s surface by wind action.

 

BARYSPHERE
Refers to the innermost shell of the earth.

 

BASIN
A water reservoir for anchoring ships to high tide. Also an area of land drained by a river.

 

BIOSPHERE
The forms of life on the earth, including plants, vegetables, animals, birds and men.

 

BLACK SOIL
The black soil of Deccan, also known as Regur. Very fertile and ideal for growing cotton.

 

BORE
A tidal wave that breaks in the estuaries of some rivers, and being impelled by the narrowing channel, rises as tide, and moves along with great force.

 

CANYON
A deep valley cut by a river running through a mountain. The most famous is the Colorado Canyon,   U.S.A., which is 217 miles long and 8 to 10 miles wide.

 

CAPE
CHINOOK
The warm, dry wind blowing along the eastern side of the Rocky Mountains in Canada and the U.S.A.

 

CHLOROPHYLL
Green colouring matter present in plant leaves. Plants make their own food with the help of chlorophyll.

 

CLOUDBURST
An excessively heavy, sudden and destructive rainfall, usually associated with a thunderstorm. Pahalgam and Trivandrum have often been struck by cloudbursts.

 

CONFLUENCE
The meeting place of two or more rivers as in Allahabad where the Ganges, the Yamuna and the mythical Saraswati meet.

 

COLD WALL
A cold current that flows between Greenland and America.

 

CONIFEROUS FOREST
Evergreen cone-bearing trees, whose leaves are shaped like a needle.

 

CONTINENTAL CLIMATE
The climate experienced in the interior of the great continents.

 

CONTINENTAL SHELF
A part of land submerged under the sea, whose depth is not more than 600 ft. This area is the richest fishing ground.

 

CONTOURS
The lines joining places of the same altitude above sea-level.

 

CORAL ISLAND
A rock formed by the skeletons of certain marine polyps. The most famous coral islands are the Great Barrier Reef, located near Australia.

 

CROP ROTATION
Alternating crops (e.g. legumes followed by wheat) produced regularly one after the other so that the land retains its fertility.

 

CYCLONES
Winds blowing a spiral form from the regions of outward high pressure to inward low pressure. These winds bring about rain and great changes in weather.

 

INTERNATIONAL DATE LINE
Situated 180 meridian from Greenwich. A ship while crossing the line eastwards goes forward by a day, while westwards it goes back by a day.

 

DECIDUOUS FORESTS
Broad-leaved trees in temperate regions. The leaves fall off in the autumn season regularly.

 

DELTA
An alluvial, fertile deposit shaped like the Greek letter formed at the mouth of a river. The Nile Delta and the Sunderbans Delta are well known.

 

DENUDATION
Wear and tear of rocks due to natural agents.

 

DOG STAR
The name of the star Sirius, the nearest to the earth and the brightest of all.

 

DRY FARMING
A technique of farming without irrigation in an area with limited rainfall, the land being treated so as to conserve the moisture.

 

DOLDRUMS
The region lying within 5oN and 5oS of the Equator where the air rises above the ground and the pressure is low. The doldrums belt is marked by thundery conditions. Convectional rainfall is a rule every afternoon. This is a region of high rainfall, high humidity and uncomfortable temperature.

 

DOLOMITE
A semi-transparent mineral of double carbonates of calcium and magnesium.

 

DUNE
A mound of loose sand in a desert. Created by strong winds e.g. Thar, Sahara.

 

ECLIPSES
Caused due to revolution of the earth and the moon. The underlying principle is that light travels in a straight line. When the earth comes in between the sun and the moon, a lunar eclipse is created whereas we have a solar eclipse when the moon comes between the earth and the sun.

 

EL NINO
A phenomenon in the Pacific Ocean near the Chilean coast. Believed to create major climatic changes   worldwide. It is now believed that it has a major impact on the onset of monsoons in India. The opposite of La Nino.

 

EQUATOR
The imaginary line around the earth which divides it equally, the northern and the southern hemispheres.

 

EQUINOX
March 21 (Vernal Equinox) and September 23 (Autumn Equinox), when days and nights are of equal duration throughout the globe.

 

EROSION
Gradual destruction or wearing away of the land by rain, river water, glacier and wind.

 

ESTUARY
A broad channel such as the Thames Estuary, where the river waters and sea waters merge. Normally, an estuary is created when the flow of the river is fast due to its slope. In case of slow speed of the river, a delta is created.

 

 

POPULAR MEDICAL TERMS

 

ALLERGY
A condition which makes a person susceptible to the effects of any drug / article. Hay fever, asthma and eczema are allergic in nature.

 

ANAEMIA
Deficit of Red Blood Corpuscles or of haemoglobin. The person turns pale and weak.

 

ANAESTHETIC
A drug which causes temporary numbness to touch and pain, with or without losing consciousness e.g. chloroform.
ANALGESIC
A drug which serves to relieve pain e.g. Aspirin.

 

ANTACID
A drug to counteract excess acidity in the stomach. It neutralizes the excess acid released during digestion by the stomach.

 

ANTIBIOTICS
A series of drugs like penicillin and streptomycin, prepared from moulds or similar organisms. They destroy bacteria and prevent their growth. First used during the second world war, they have revolutionized the world of medicine.

 

ANTOBODIES
A particular substance produced by the body in the blood as a reaction to an antigen.

 

ANTIDOTE
A remedy to counteract a poison.

 

ANTISEPTIC
A drug which can kill germs e.g. dettol, carbolic acid.

 

AUTOPSY
An examination of the dead body to find the exact reason behind death.

 

BACILLUS
A rod-shaped micro-organism e.g. Tubercle bacillus, which causes tuberculosis.

 

BIOPSY
Taking tissues from a part of the living body for examination while investigating a disease.

 

BACTERIA
Microscopic germs which are not visible to the naked eye. They are responsible for causing several diseases.

 

BERI-BERI
A deficiency disease due to lack of Vitamin B and marked by muscular atrophy. Its symptoms are numbness of arms, legs and swelling of the feet and arms.

 

BLOOD PRESSURE
The pressure exerted by the blood against the blood vessels (systolic and diastolic). Several variables like chronic anxiety and substance abuse can cause high blood pressure. Usually, low blood pressure results in fainting attacks.

 

BRONCHITIS
Caused due to inflammation of the tubes leading from the windpipe to the lungs.

 

CAESARIAN OPERATION
A delivery by surgically cutting open the abdomen and the womb, where the delivery is impossible in a natural way. Named after Julius Caesar, the Roman emperor, who was born in this way.

 

CANCER
A malignant growth of tissue, not coordinated with normal body growth. It can affect any part of the body. Substance abuse like excessive smoking, drinking and exposure to certain chemicals and radiation may cause cancer. It is neither contagious nor communicable.

 

CARDIOGRAPH
An instrument to record the movements of the heart.

 

CATARACT
The lens of the eye gets clouded, preventing clear vision. Mostly corrected surgically.

 

CHICKEN POX
A highly infectious disease caused by a virus commonly found among children. One attack usually gives life-long immunity from the disease.

 

CHOLERA
Acute bacterial infection marked by vomiting and frequent loose motions, drying of tissues and painful cramps. Consumption of infected food and water are responsible for it.

 

DIARRHOEA
Loose stools; several causes are responsible.

 

DIPTHERIA
Acute infectious disease caused by the growth of a throat membrane. It may be fatal, since it can stop breathing.

 

DYSENTERY
Infectious disease marked by passing of stools laced with blood and mucus.

 

ECZEMA
A disease caused by inflammation of the skin.

 

ENDEMIC
A disease prevailing in a particular area due to surrounding conditions e.g. malaria and leprosy.

 

ENZYMES
Organic substances which accelerate the chemical reactions in living organisms. For example, sugars undergo fermentation into alcohol in the presence of enzymes. Ptyalin present in human in saliva is another example.

 

EPIDEMIC
A disease which often affects the residents in a locality and spreads quickly to other places too.

 

EPILEPSY
A disease caused by the excessive firing of neurons in the brain. The patient may experience fits and may become fall unconscious, often with spasm and forth in the mouth.

 

FLU(INFLUENZA)
A highly contagious, viral disease preceded by headache, body pain, cough, and general fatigue. It results in watery nose, bad throat and hoarse voice.

 

GONORRHOEA
A venereal disease among woman.

 

GOUT
A disease marked by inflammation, especially of the great toe.
HAY FEVER
Allergic disease caused by abnormal sensitivity to certain grass pollens found in early summers.

 

HOMEOPATHY
A medical system discovered by Hahnemann, a German physician. It is based on two assumptions.
1. A disease may be cured by producing the symptoms of the same disease by giving drugs.
2. Drugs have more potent effects, when given in small doses.

 

HYPERMETROPIA (Long sightedness)
One can see the far-off objects clearly but not the nearer ones. Remedied by convex lenses.

 

IMMUNITY
The ability of a living organism to resist and overcome diseases.

 

INSULIN
The internal secretion of the pancreas which converts extra body sugar into reserve food. Insulin injections are used in the treatment of diabetes.

 

JAUNDICE
The skin and other body issues turn yellow due to excess of bile pigment in the blood and the lymph.

 

KALA-AZAR
Mostly occurs in tropical countries and marked by the swelling of spleen and liver.

 

LEPROSY
An endemic disorder caused by germs similar to that of tuberculosis. Leprosy affects the skin and the nerves. Organ deformities may arise in the body.

 

LEUKAEMIA
The presence of excessive white cells in the blood. The red corpuscles break down causing anemia, there is swelling of the spleen also.

 

MEASLES
An acute infectious human disease. Common among children; Causes high fever and red rashes all over the body.

 

MENINGITIS
A bacterial infection of the membranes of the brain. Also known as Japani Fever.

 

MUMPS
Infection usually occurring in childhood. Marked by the swelling of the glands in front of the ears. One attack can give life-long immunity.

 

MYOPIA (Short-sightedness)
When a person can see nearer objects distinctly but not the distant ones. It can be corrected by using concave lenses.

 

PASTEURIZATION
Heating a liquid to 72 degree Celsius followed by sudden cooling to kill all germs. Milk is treated in this manner by Pasteur’s method of sterilization.

 

PILES
The immediate cause of the disease is pressure on the veins in the rectum or around the anus. It is mainly due to constipation and pregnancy. Often the patient suffers from pain after the bowels have been emptied.
PNEUMONIA
An inflammatory condition of the lung tissue, accompanied by chest pain.

 

PYORRHEA
A gum infection. Teeth become loose due to excessive bleeding and pus discharge.

 

RHEUMATISM
Its symptoms are fever and joint pain, followed by disease of the heart valves.

 

RICKETS
Caused due to the deficiency of vitamin D. Common among children. The bones get softened, bent and become deformed.

 

RINGWORM
Infectious, fungal disease. The hair wither and bluish patches are formed, accompanied by severe itching.

 

SCURVY
It is a bleeding disorder caused by the lack of vitamin C. Best cured by lime juice which contains vitamin C.

 

SMALLPOX
An acute infectious disease marked by fever, headache, joint pain and rashes. The best safeguard is the vaccine invented by Edward Jenner.

 

SPRAIN
Overstretching of the ligaments due to a joint injury.

 

SULFA DRUGS
A group of new drugs for treating bacterial disease.

 

SULPHANAMIDE
A group of new drugs used in the treatment of bacterial diseases. Employed to cure venereal diseases, dysentery and also as an antiseptic.
SYPHILIS
A contagious venereal disease due to a bacterial infection caused by sexual intercourse with an affected person.
TETANUS
A disease caused by Tetanus bacillus found in rich soil or horse dung. The disease affects the nervous system and can prove fatal. However, anti-tetanus vaccination can give immunity.
TRACHOMA
An infectious disease of the eye.
TYPHOID FEVER
Marked by prolonged fever, enlargement of the spleen, profusely coloured rashes and perforation of the intestines.
VIRUS
A virus is a parasite which cannot be destroyed without damaging the cells on which it lives. No specific treatment has so far been developed for viral diseases. A common example is the common cold.
WHOOPING COUGH
An infectious cough, generally found among children. In the first stage, one gets cold, followed by typical cough and finally, the patient starts recovering.
YELLOW FEVER
A dangerous disease marked by jaundice, weakness, black vomit and fever. Caused by a certain mosquito found in the tropical regions.

 

 
POPULAR SCIENTIFIC TERMS

 

ABSOLUTE ZERO
The starting point of the Absolute Temperature scale (Kelvin Scale), where all molecular motion stops.

 

ARTIFICIAL GRAVITY
The creation of centrifugal force by causing a craft-like object to slowly rotate. This is an attempt to simulate the natural environment.

 

ASTRONAUT
One who travels on flights into the outer space. The word Cosmonaut is its equivalent in Russian language.

 

ATOMIC FISSION
The splitting of a heavy nucleus into two smaller units, thus yielding a great amount of heat and light energy. For example, in an atomic reactor, a Uranium nucleus is bombarded with neutrons, which cause its nucleus to split into lighter nuclei. In this process, a certain amount of mass disappears, converting itself into energy according to Einstein’s mass-energy equivalence formula.

 

ATOMIC FISSION
The fusing together of two lighter nuclei to create a bigger nucleus, thus creating a great amount of energy in the process. For example, on the surface of the Sun, two Hydrogen nuclei fuse together to create a Helium nucleus. In this process, a certain amount of mass disappears, converting itself into energy according to Einstein’s mass-energy equivalence formula.

 

COMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE
A satellite equipped to act as a relay station for a Transmitter and Receiver Station pair thousands situated miles apart. Such satellites are put in an orbit positioned at 36000 kilometre away from the earth and they move with the earth’s rotational speed to enable the transmission of signals.

 

DOCKING
The joining together of two units, launched separately, in the outer space. It requires a very careful selection of the orbit and speed of the chasing vehicle to catch up with the vehicle being chased.

 

ESCAPE VELOCITY
A speed of about 25,000 miles an hour or 11.2 kilometre per second. A rocket launched with this minimum speed breaks away from the gravitational pull and travels in a path that takes it right away from the earth.

 

GEIGER COUNTER
A device to measure the level of radiation. Commonly used in nuclear reactors and scientific experiments involving nuclear reactions.

 

HEAT OF RE-ENTRY
The heat generated by friction between the surface of the earth and the air molecules when a spacecraft re-enters the earth’s atmosphere after completing its journey.

 

JET PROPULSION
A kind of motion which works on Newton’s Third Law. A jet of particles is released out of a nozzle, with the resultant reaction of the craft moving in the opposite direction.

 

MISSILE
Any object launched with the goal of striking a defined target.

 

PRESSURE SUIT
A special suit worn by astronauts to protect themselves against a sudden loss of cabin pressure which may stop oxygen supply and create bubbles in his circulatory system and prove fatal.

 

QUANTUM THEORY
Max Planck’s theory that all electromagnetic radiation is emitted in tiny packets of energy called quanta.

 

ROCKET
A device that can produce thrust by burning fuel to move itself as a result of the reaction.

 

SPACE SUIT
A special suit to provide the necessary emergency environment for an astronaut in case of cabin pressure failure. If he wishes to move outside and around the ship as it travels through space, he wears the suit temporarily while in space.

 

WEIGHTLESSNESS
The absence of weight due to other forces being applied to neutralize the force of weight. It is generally felt far away from a strong gravitational field in a region of weak fields. A routine phenomenon during space travel.

 

 

POPULAR LATEST TERMS

 

CONTINENTALL DRIFT
Scientists and geographers have believed for long that millions of years ago, the continents — Antarctica, India and Africa formed one single land mass called Pangaea. The theory, given by Wagner, has now been firmly proved with the discovery of fossils of hippopotamus in all these places.

 

L.S.D.
Lysergic Acid Diethylamide is a drug producing many symptoms of schizophrenia. It causes strange, false sensations. A popular, highly addictive street drug.

 

PULSARS (Pulsating Stars)
The remnants of stellar explosions. They emit radio energy pulsating at regular intervals. Around 40 of them have been located so far out of an estimated 16,000 lying in the plane of our galaxy.

 

SEA OF TRANQUILITY
The site where the human foot was set for the first time by Neil Armstrong. Apollo-XI launched by the USA had landed there in July, 1969.

 

GREEN REVOLUTION
The term implies the steep growth in the output of farm produce, witnessed from the mid-sixties. The Green Revolution was initiated in India under the guidance of Dr. Norman Borlaug of the USA, who later got the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts in reducing hunger globally.

 

The Green Revolution was made possible by
A. More and better use of fertilizers                                B. Intensive cultivation

C. Hybrid seed varieties                                                       D. Pesticides and insecticides and

E. Assured means of irrigation

It has boosted farm output significantly, leading to self-sufficiency food grain output. The Green Revolution in India has had two major drawbacks:

 

1. Confined to food grain only. There has been no such revolution in pulses or edible oils, which are being imported even now.

2. It has been confined to north India only.

 

LEAD BANK SCHEME
The Gadgil Group, 1969 had recommended that the nationalized banks be asked to take charge of the complete development activity of backward areas. Each bank was to be attached with a certain backward region of a district and it was to be the bank’s responsibility to look after their development. The bank was to undertake a techno-economic survey to take over all the financial and developmental needs.

 

YOUNG TURKS
Radical elements in a political party who support sweeping reforms to bring about faster development. The term was applied first to the group led by Kamaal Ataturk of Turkey.

 

OMBUDSMAN
A duly constituted legal authority to redress public grievances in a defined arena e.g. banking, insurance, press.

 

ACID RAIN
The name given to rain or sleet contaminated with acid. Its acidity is greater than the normal limit of carbon dioxide dissolved in the rain to give carbonic acid. The acidity is caused by larger concentrations of several contaminants, especially strong acids, nitric and sulphuric which arise from effluents containing oxides of nitrogen and sulphur.

 

BIOLOGICAL WARFARE
Using bacteria, viruses, fungi or other biological agents as a means of warfare. They spread distress, incapacity, disease and death in the affected region among its people or livestock. However, the Biological Weapons Convention ratified by Britain, the USA and the erstwhile USSR, has banned germs warfare. Iraq, it was feared, could have uses these weapons during the 1991 Gulf War.

 

GENETIC ENGINEERING
The name given to the techniques which introduce human choice and design into the construction and combinations of genes. It involves biochemical alteration of the DNA present in cells. Many scientists regard this to be fraught with enormous consequences like nuclear power.