Geography

·         The study of universe is known as “Cosmology”.

·         A galaxy is a vast system of billions of stars, dust and light gases bound by their own gravity.

·         Our galaxy is the Milky Way Galaxy (Akash Ganga) formed after the Big Bang.

·         Andromeda is the nearest galaxy to the Milky Way.

·         The Big Bang was an explosion of concentrated matter in the universe that occurred 15 billion years ago, leading to the formation of galaxies and other heavenly bodies.

·         Stars are heavenly bodies made up of hot burning gases, which shine by emitting their own light.

·         Comets are made of frozen gases.

·         Satellites are those heavenly bodies which revolve around the planets. Moon is the natural satellite of the earth.

Earth

·         The Earth is an oblate spheroid. It is not perfectly as it is flattened a little at the poles with a slight bulge at the centre (equator).

·         SIAL (Silicon-Aluminium) Upper part of the crust.

·         Rotation of the Earth: The Earth spins on its imaginary axis from West to East in one day.

·         Revolution of the Earth: The Earth’s motion in elliptical orbit around the Sun in one year.

Eclipses

When the light of the Sun or the Moon is blocked by another body, the Sun or the Moon is said to be eclipsed.

Solar Eclipse: It is caused when the Moon revolving around the Earth comes in between the Earth and the Sun, thus making a part or whole of the Sun invisible from a particular part of the .Earth. Thus, the eclipse can be partial or complete.

Lunar Eclipse: When the Earth comes between the Moon and the Sun, the shadow cast by the Earth on the Moon results in a lunar eclipse.

Physical Geography

Rocks: Rocks are made up of individual substances called minerals, found mostly in solid state. Rocks are classified into three major types

Igneous: Such rocks are formed by the solidification of molten magma e.g. mica, granite etc

Sedimentary: These rocks are formed due to accumulation of rock particles and organic matter in layers, under tremendous pressure e.g. gravel, peat, gypsum etc.

Metamorphic: These rocks were originally igneous or sedimentary but later changed due to pressure, heat or action of water e.g. gneiss, marble, quartzite, etc

Landforms: There are three major landforms: mountains, plateaus and plains.

Mountains: An uplifted portion of the Earth’s surface is called a hill or a mountain.

Major Mountain Peaks

 

Mountain Peak                                                              Location

 

Mt Everest (highest in the World)                        Nepal-Tibet

 

K2 (Godwin Austin)                                            India (POK)

 

Dhaulagiri                                                         Nepal

 

Annapurna                                                        Nepal

 

Gurla Mandhata                                                  Tibet

 

Tirich Mir                                                           Pakistan

 

Aconcagua                                                       Argentina

 

Cotopaxi                                                           Ecuador

 

Kilimanjaro                                                        Tanzania

 

 

Atmosphere

The vast expanse of air which envelopes the earth all around is called the atmosphere. It extends to thousands of kilometers. It protects the Earth’s Surface from the Sun’s harmful, ultraviolet rays. It also regulates temperature, preventing the Earth from becoming too hot or too cold.

The major constituents of air in the atmosphere are Nitrogen (78), Oxygen (21), Argon (0.93) and

Carbon Dioxide (0.03). Besides water vapour, dust particles, smoke, salts and other impurities are present in air in varying quantities.

Structure of Atmosphere

 

Layer                                    Height (km)                    Feature

 

Troposphere                 0-18 km                        Contains 75% of atmospheric gases.

As height increases, temperature

decreases (temperature inversion) (about 6.5 o C per 1

km)

 

Stratosphere                 18-50 km                       This layer contains the ozone layer. The temperature                                                                               remains fairly constant (-600 C).

 

Mesosphere                  50-80                            The coldest region of the atmosphere. The temperature

drops to about -1000 C.

 

Ionosphere                    80-400 km                     Radio waves are bounced off the ions and reflect waves

back to the Earth. This helps radio communication.

 

Exosphere                    Above 400km                Upper part of exosphere is called Magnetosphere. The

temperature keeps on rising constantly at high rate.

 

 

Greenhouse Effect

A greenhouse gas is one that absorbs and emits radiation within the thermal infrared range. This process is the fundamental cause of the greenhouse effect. The primary greenhouse gases in the Earth’s atmosphere are water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and ozone

In the solar system, the atmosphere of Venus, Mars and Titan also contain gases that cause greenhouse effects.

Global Warming

Global warming is the increase in the Earth’s average surface temperature due to greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide emissions from burning fossil fuels or from deforestation.

 

Important Lakes of the World

 

Lake                     Location                                  Lake                               Location

 

 

Caspian            Russia and CIS                       Great Slave         Canada

 

Superior            Canada and USA                   Great Bear           Canada

 

Victoria             Tanzania (Africa)                     Baikal                  Russia (CIS)

 

Huron               Canada and USA                   Tanganyika          Africa

 

Michigan           USA                                         Aral                   Russia (CIS)

 

 

 

 

Important International Boundary Lines

 

Name                                                                   Between

 

Radcliffe Line                                           India and Pakistan

 

MacMohan Line                                     India and China

 

Durand Line                                         Pakistan and Afghanistan

 

Hindenburg                                           Germany and Poland

 

Maginot Line                                         France and Germany

 

Order Neisse Line                                  Germany and Poland

 

Siegfried Line                                        Fortification between Germany and France

 

38th Parallel Line                                    North and South Korea

 

49th Parallel Line                                    USA and Canada

 

24th Parallel Line                                    Pakistan claims it to be a boundary between India and Pakistan

in the Rann of Kuchch

 

17th Parallel Line                                    North Vietnam and South Vietnam

 

 

Geography of India

India is the 7th largest country in the world with an area of 32. 87 lakh sq km, which is 2.42% of the world’s area. The total population of India is 1.21 billion, which is 17.31% of the world’s population.

East-West extent                                                                 2933 Km

 

Land frontier                                                                      15200 Km

 

Geographical Location                                                         82.4 E and 3706

 

North latitudes and longitudes                                             6807 and 970 25’ East

 

Total Coastline Length                                                         7516.5 km

(Coastline length of mainland is 6100 Km.)

 

Highest point                                                                    Kanchenjunga (8598 m or 28209 ft)

 

Lowest point                                                                         Kuttanad (-2.2 m or -7.2 ft)

 

Longest Lake                                                                    Chilka Lake

 

Number of States                                                                 29

 

Number of Union Territories                                                 7

 

Least Populous District                                                      Yanam

 

Most Literate State                                                               Kerala

 

Least Literate State                                                               Bihar

 

Most Densely Populated State                                          Bihar

 

Largest State (area wise)                                                       Rajasthan

 

Smallest State                                                                 Goa

 

Most Populous State                                                  Uttar Pradesh

 

Least Populous State                                                  Sikkim

 

 

In India, the Tropic of Cancer passes through 8 States (Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhatisgarh, Jharkhand, Paschim Bang, Tripura and Mizoram).

India shares its longest boundary with Bangladesh (4053 km), followed by China (3380 km), Pakistan (2912 km), Nepal (1690 km), Myanmar (1463 km), Bhutan (605 km) and Afghanistan (88 km).

Land Neighbours (7)

Pakistan Afghanistan, China, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Myanmar

Important Lakes in India

 

Lake                                      State                                      Details

 

Chilka Lake                   Odisha                          It is a saline and lagoon lake (the largest lake in India)

 

Kolleru Lake                  Andhra Pradesh            It is a freshwater lake.

 

Loktak Lake                  Manipur                        It is a freshwater lake having inland drainage in Manipur.

 

Lonar Lake                    Maharashtra                  It is a meteorite crater lake in Buldhana in

Maharashtra.

 

Pangong Lake               J &K                             It is a salty lake.

 

Pulicat Lake                  T Nadu-Andhra border   It is a saline and lagoon lake.

 

Sambhar Lake               Rajasthan                      It is a shallow lake which is saline. Near Jaipur.

 

Tsomarari Lake              J & K                            It is a salty lake.

 

Vembanad Lake            Kerala                           It is a lagoon lake.

 

Wular and Dal Lakes      J & K                            Wular lake was created due to tectonic activities.

 

 

Tribes in India

Tribe                    State                                                     Tribe                    State

 

Abors               Arunachal                                  Khasis              Meghalaya

 

Lushais             Tripura                                      Bhils                 MP, Rajasthan

 

Mundas                        Bihar, Odisha, Paschim Banga   Chenchus          Andhra Pradesh, Odisha

 

Nagas               Manipur, Nagaland                    Meenas             Rajasthan

 

Gaddis             Himachal Pradesh                     Shompens        Andaman and Nicobar Islands

 

Garos               Meghalaya                                Todas               Nilgiri (Tamil Nadu)

 

Gonds                 Karnataka                                       Mopillahs         Kerala

Climate of India

Monsoon

A type of wind system in which there is almost complete reversal of prevailing wind direction

Types

South West Monsoon (June-July)

North East Monsoon (September-December)

Seasons of India

Winter Season                                       (Mid December to Mid March)

Summer Season                                                (Mid March to May)

Rainy Season                                        (June to September)

Season of Retreating Monsoon              (October – Mid-December)

Climatic Regions in India

Type                                    Area                                                                    Characteristic

 

Tropical Rain                 Western Ghats, West Coastal Plains,   High temperature throughout the

Forests                         Parts of Assam

year, heavy seasonal rainfall, annual

rainfall 200 cm (May-Nov)

 

 

Tropical Savana             Most peninsular region                           Dry Winters, annual rainfall 76-150 cm

(except leeward side of Western Ghats)

 

Tropical, sub-tropical      Punjab, Haryana, Kuchchh                  Temperature varies from 120 – 350 C.

Steppes

 

Tropical Desert              W. Barmer, Jaisalmer, Bikaner, Kuchchh Scanty rainfall

 

Humid Subtropical           South of Himalayas                             Mild Winters, Very hot                                                                                                                               summers, Dry winters

 

Mountain Climate             Mountainous region (6000 m or more)       Rainfall from 63.5 -254 cm                                                                                                                     (South-West Monsoon)

 

 

Agriculture

India is essentially an agricultural country. Two-thirds of its population still depends on agriculture. It includes farming, animal rearing and fishing.

Agricultural Seasons in India

There are two major crop seasons in India – Kharif which is sown in June/July and harvested in September / October e.g. rice, jowar, bajra, ragi, maize, cotton and jute. The other season is – Rabi which is sown in October / December and harvested in Apri / May e.g. Wheat, barley, pea, rapeseed, mustard, and grains.

Soils in India

Alluvial

Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand

 

Composition- Rich in potash and lime but deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus.

 

Crops – Wheat, rice, sugarcane, cotton and jute etc.

 

Black (Regur soil)

Deccan Plateau, Krishna and Godavari Valley, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.

 

Composition – Rich in iron, lime, aluminium, magnesium, calcium but lacks nitrogen, phosphorus and humus.

 

Crops- Cotton, sugarcane, jowar, tobacco, wheat, rice

 

 

Red
Eastern parts of Deccan Plateau, Tamil Nadu, Goa, Odisha and Meghalaya

 

Composition- Rich in iron and potash but deficient in lime, nitrogen, phosphorus and humus

 

Crops- Wheat, rice, cotton, sugarcane and pulses

 

 

Laterite

Summits of Eastern and Western Ghats, Assam hills, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Paschim Banga and Odisha

 

Composition: Rich in iron but poor in silica, lime, phosphorus, potash and humus.

 

Crops – Tea, coffee, rubber, cashew and millets

 

 

Desert

West and North-West India, Rajasthan, North Gujarat and Southern Punjab

 

Composition – Rich in soluble salts but deficient in organic matter.

 

Crops – Unsuitable for cultivation but with irrigation, can be used to cultivate drought-resistant lime, millets, barley, cotton, maize and pulses

 

 

Mountainous

Hills of Jammu and Kashmir, Uttarakhand and Assam hills

 

Composition- Rich in iron and humus but deficient in lime.

 

Crops- With fertilizers, tea, fruits and medicinal plants can be grown

 

 

Saline and Alkaline

Drier parts of Bihar, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan and Maharashtra

 

Composition- Many salts such as sodium, magnesium and calcium.

 

Crops – Unfit for agriculture

 

 

Peaty and Marshy

Kerala, coastal Odisha, Tamil Nadu and Suderbans

 

Composition- Contain large amount of soluble salts and organic matter but lack potash and phosphates

 

Crops- Rice, jute

 

 

Transportation in India

Railways

The first train ran in India between Bombay and Thane, a stretch of 34 km on April 16, 1853. The first electric train in India was Deccan Queen. It was introduced in 1929 between Bombay and Poona. The longest train route is ‘Vivek ‘Fxpress’ from Dibrugarh in Assam to Kanyakumari in Tamil Nadu. It covers a distance of 4278 km.

Indian Railway system is the largest in Asia and the fourth largest in the world. The Indian Railways operate on three different gauges.

Broad Gauge (Distance between rails is 1.676 m)

Metre Gauge (Distance between rails is 1.00 m)

Narrow Gauge (Distance between rails is 0.762 or 0.610 m)

The longest railway platform in India is Gorakhpur with a stretch of around 1.3 km.

 

Railway Zones

 

Railways                                                            Headquarters

 

Central                                                  Mumbai VT

 

Eastern                                                 Kolkata

 

Northern                                                New Delhi

 

North Eastern                                        Gorakhpur

 

North- East Frontier                               Maligaon-Guwahati

 

Southern                                               Chennai

 

South Central                                        Secunderabad

 

South Eastern                                       Kolkata

 

Western                                                Mumbai Churchgate

 

East Coast                                            Bhubaneshwar

 

East Central                                          Hajipur

 

North Central                                         Allahabad

 

North Western                                       Jaipur

 

South Western                                      Bengaluru (Hubll)

 

West Central                                         Jabalpur

 

South- East Central                               Bilaspur

 

Kolkata Metro                                       Kolkata

 

 

Road Transport

India has one of the largest road networks in the world (33 lakh km approx). It consists of National

Highways, State Highways, other district roads and rural roads.

NH 7 is the longest highway in India

 

Important National Highways

 

National Highway                          Connects

 

NH1                                          New Delhi-Ambala-Jalandhar-Amritsar

 

NH2                                          Delhi-Kolkata

 

NH3                                          Agra-Mumbai

 

NH4                                          Thane and Chennai via Pune and Belgaum

 

NH5                                          Kolkata-Chennai

 

NH6                                          Kolkata-Dhule

 

NH7                                          Varanasi-Kanyakumari (2369 km)

 

NH8                                          Delhi-Fazilka

 

NH9                                          Mumbai-Vijayawada

 

NH10                                        Delhi-Fazilka

 

NH24                                        Delhi-Lucknow

 

NH26                                        Lucknow-Varanasi

 

 

Water Transport

The government has recognized the following National Waterways of India

NW1     Allahabad to Haldia                                                                   1629 km

NW2     Sadia to Dhubri on Brahmaputra river                                         819 km

NW3     Kollam to Kottapuram                                                                186 km

NW4     Kakinada to Marakkanam along Godavari and Krishna river         1110 km

 

Major Ports in India

 

Western Coast                                                Eastern Coast

 

Tidal Port Kandla (Gujarat)                      Paradip (Odisha)

 

Mumbai                                                              Vishakhapatnam

 

JL Nehru Port                                           Ennore

 

Mangalore                                              Tuticorin

 

Cochin                                                  Port Blair

 

 

Air Transport

J R D Tata was the first person to take a solo flight from Mumbai to Karachi in 1931. In 1953 all the private airlines were nationalized and Indian Airlines and Air India came into existence.

There are 12 international airports in India.

Name                                                                          City

Begumpet Airport                                                          Hyderabad

Calicut International Airport                                            Calicut

Chhatrapati Shivaji international Airport                           Mumbai

HAL Airport                                                                   Bengaluru

Goa Airport, Vasco da Gama City                                  Goa

Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose International Airport          Kolkata

Thiruvanathapuram international Airport                           Thiruvananthpuram

Lokpriya Gopinath Bordoloi International Airport             Guwahati

Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel International Airport                  Ahmadabad

Chennai international Airport                                           Chennai

Raja Sansi international Airport                                       Amritsar