·         The study of universe is known as “Cosmology”.

·         A galaxy is a vast system of billions of stars, dust and light gases bound by their own gravity.

·         Our galaxy is the Milky Way Galaxy (Akash Ganga) formed after the Big Bang.

·         Andromeda is the nearest galaxy to the Milky Way.

·         The Big Bang was an explosion of concentrated matter in the universe that occurred 15 billion years ago, leading to the formation of galaxies and other heavenly bodies.

·         Stars are heavenly bodies made up of hot burning gases, which shine by emitting their own light.

·         Comets are made of frozen gases.

·         Satellites are those heavenly bodies which revolve around the planets. Moon is the natural satellite of the earth.


·         The Earth is an oblate spheroid. It is not perfectly as it is flattened a little at the poles with a slight bulge at the centre (equator).

·         SIAL (Silicon-Aluminium) Upper part of the crust.

·         Rotation of the Earth: The Earth spins on its imaginary axis from West to East in one day.

·         Revolution of the Earth: The Earth’s motion in elliptical orbit around the Sun in one year.


When the light of the Sun or the Moon is blocked by another body, the Sun or the Moon is said to be eclipsed.

Solar Eclipse: It is caused when the Moon revolving around the Earth comes in between the Earth and the Sun, thus making a part or whole of the Sun invisible from a particular part of the .Earth. Thus, the eclipse can be partial or complete.

Lunar Eclipse: When the Earth comes between the Moon and the Sun, the shadow cast by the Earth on the Moon results in a lunar eclipse.

Physical Geography

Rocks: Rocks are made up of individual substances called minerals, found mostly in solid state. Rocks are classified into three major types

Igneous: Such rocks are formed by the solidification of molten magma e.g. mica, granite etc

Sedimentary: These rocks are formed due to accumulation of rock particles and organic matter in layers, under tremendous pressure e.g. gravel, peat, gypsum etc.

Metamorphic: These rocks were originally igneous or sedimentary but later changed due to pressure, heat or action of water e.g. gneiss, marble, quartzite, etc

Landforms: There are three major landforms: mountains, plateaus and plains.

Mountains: An uplifted portion of the Earth’s surface is called a hill or a mountain.

Major Mountain Peaks


Mountain Peak                                                              Location


Mt Everest (highest in the World)                        Nepal-Tibet


K2 (Godwin Austin)                                            India (POK)


Dhaulagiri                                                         Nepal


Annapurna                                                        Nepal


Gurla Mandhata                                                  Tibet


Tirich Mir                                                           Pakistan


Aconcagua                                                       Argentina


Cotopaxi                                                           Ecuador


Kilimanjaro                                                        Tanzania




The vast expanse of air which envelopes the earth all around is called the atmosphere. It extends to thousands of kilometers. It protects the Earth’s Surface from the Sun’s harmful, ultraviolet rays. It also regulates temperature, preventing the Earth from becoming too hot or too cold.

The major constituents of air in the atmosphere are Nitrogen (78), Oxygen (21), Argon (0.93) and

Carbon Dioxide (0.03). Besides water vapour, dust particles, smoke, salts and other impurities are present in air in varying quantities.

Structure of Atmosphere


Layer                                    Height (km)                    Feature


Troposphere                 0-18 km                        Contains 75% of atmospheric gases.

As height increases, temperature

decreases (temperature inversion) (about 6.5 o C per 1



Stratosphere                 18-50 km                       This layer contains the ozone layer. The temperature                                                                               remains fairly constant (-600 C).


Mesosphere                  50-80                            The coldest region of the atmosphere. The temperature

drops to about -1000 C.


Ionosphere                    80-400 km                     Radio waves are bounced off the ions and reflect waves

back to the Earth. This helps radio communication.


Exosphere                    Above 400km                Upper part of exosphere is called Magnetosphere. The

temperature keeps on rising constantly at high rate.



Greenhouse Effect

A greenhouse gas is one that absorbs and emits radiation within the thermal infrared range. This process is the fundamental cause of the greenhouse effect. The primary greenhouse gases in the Earth’s atmosphere are water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and ozone

In the solar system, the atmosphere of Venus, Mars and Titan also contain gases that cause greenhouse effects.

Global Warming

Global warming is the increase in the Earth’s average surface temperature due to greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide emissions from burning fossil fuels or from deforestation.


Important Lakes of the World


Lake                     Location                                  Lake                               Location



Caspian            Russia and CIS                       Great Slave         Canada


Superior            Canada and USA                   Great Bear           Canada


Victoria             Tanzania (Africa)                     Baikal                  Russia (CIS)


Huron               Canada and USA                   Tanganyika          Africa


Michigan           USA                                         Aral                   Russia (CIS)





Important International Boundary Lines


Name                                                                   Between


Radcliffe Line                                           India and Pakistan


MacMohan Line                                     India and China


Durand Line                                         Pakistan and Afghanistan


Hindenburg                                           Germany and Poland


Maginot Line                                         France and Germany


Order Neisse Line                                  Germany and Poland


Siegfried Line                                        Fortification between Germany and France


38th Parallel Line                                    North and South Korea


49th Parallel Line                                    USA and Canada


24th Parallel Line                                    Pakistan claims it to be a boundary between India and Pakistan

in the Rann of Kuchch


17th Parallel Line                                    North Vietnam and South Vietnam



Geography of India

India is the 7th largest country in the world with an area of 32. 87 lakh sq km, which is 2.42% of the world’s area. The total population of India is 1.21 billion, which is 17.31% of the world’s population.

East-West extent                                                                 2933 Km


Land frontier                                                                      15200 Km


Geographical Location                                                         82.4 E and 3706


North latitudes and longitudes                                             6807 and 970 25’ East


Total Coastline Length                                                         7516.5 km

(Coastline length of mainland is 6100 Km.)


Highest point                                                                    Kanchenjunga (8598 m or 28209 ft)


Lowest point                                                                         Kuttanad (-2.2 m or -7.2 ft)


Longest Lake                                                                    Chilka Lake


Number of States                                                                 29


Number of Union Territories                                                 7


Least Populous District                                                      Yanam


Most Literate State                                                               Kerala


Least Literate State                                                               Bihar


Most Densely Populated State                                          Bihar


Largest State (area wise)                                                       Rajasthan


Smallest State                                                                 Goa


Most Populous State                                                  Uttar Pradesh


Least Populous State                                                  Sikkim



In India, the Tropic of Cancer passes through 8 States (Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhatisgarh, Jharkhand, Paschim Bang, Tripura and Mizoram).

India shares its longest boundary with Bangladesh (4053 km), followed by China (3380 km), Pakistan (2912 km), Nepal (1690 km), Myanmar (1463 km), Bhutan (605 km) and Afghanistan (88 km).

Land Neighbours (7)

Pakistan Afghanistan, China, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Myanmar

Important Lakes in India


Lake                                      State                                      Details


Chilka Lake                   Odisha                          It is a saline and lagoon lake (the largest lake in India)


Kolleru Lake                  Andhra Pradesh            It is a freshwater lake.


Loktak Lake                  Manipur                        It is a freshwater lake having inland drainage in Manipur.


Lonar Lake                    Maharashtra                  It is a meteorite crater lake in Buldhana in



Pangong Lake               J &K                             It is a salty lake.


Pulicat Lake                  T Nadu-Andhra border   It is a saline and lagoon lake.


Sambhar Lake               Rajasthan                      It is a shallow lake which is saline. Near Jaipur.


Tsomarari Lake              J & K                            It is a salty lake.


Vembanad Lake            Kerala                           It is a lagoon lake.


Wular and Dal Lakes      J & K                            Wular lake was created due to tectonic activities.



Tribes in India

Tribe                    State                                                     Tribe                    State


Abors               Arunachal                                  Khasis              Meghalaya


Lushais             Tripura                                      Bhils                 MP, Rajasthan


Mundas                        Bihar, Odisha, Paschim Banga   Chenchus          Andhra Pradesh, Odisha


Nagas               Manipur, Nagaland                    Meenas             Rajasthan


Gaddis             Himachal Pradesh                     Shompens        Andaman and Nicobar Islands


Garos               Meghalaya                                Todas               Nilgiri (Tamil Nadu)


Gonds                 Karnataka                                       Mopillahs         Kerala

Climate of India


A type of wind system in which there is almost complete reversal of prevailing wind direction


South West Monsoon (June-July)

North East Monsoon (September-December)

Seasons of India

Winter Season                                       (Mid December to Mid March)

Summer Season                                                (Mid March to May)

Rainy Season                                        (June to September)

Season of Retreating Monsoon              (October – Mid-December)

Climatic Regions in India

Type                                    Area                                                                    Characteristic


Tropical Rain                 Western Ghats, West Coastal Plains,   High temperature throughout the

Forests                         Parts of Assam

year, heavy seasonal rainfall, annual

rainfall 200 cm (May-Nov)



Tropical Savana             Most peninsular region                           Dry Winters, annual rainfall 76-150 cm

(except leeward side of Western Ghats)


Tropical, sub-tropical      Punjab, Haryana, Kuchchh                  Temperature varies from 120 – 350 C.



Tropical Desert              W. Barmer, Jaisalmer, Bikaner, Kuchchh Scanty rainfall


Humid Subtropical           South of Himalayas                             Mild Winters, Very hot                                                                                                                               summers, Dry winters


Mountain Climate             Mountainous region (6000 m or more)       Rainfall from 63.5 -254 cm                                                                                                                     (South-West Monsoon)




India is essentially an agricultural country. Two-thirds of its population still depends on agriculture. It includes farming, animal rearing and fishing.

Agricultural Seasons in India

There are two major crop seasons in India – Kharif which is sown in June/July and harvested in September / October e.g. rice, jowar, bajra, ragi, maize, cotton and jute. The other season is – Rabi which is sown in October / December and harvested in Apri / May e.g. Wheat, barley, pea, rapeseed, mustard, and grains.

Soils in India


Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand


Composition- Rich in potash and lime but deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus.


Crops – Wheat, rice, sugarcane, cotton and jute etc.


Black (Regur soil)

Deccan Plateau, Krishna and Godavari Valley, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.


Composition – Rich in iron, lime, aluminium, magnesium, calcium but lacks nitrogen, phosphorus and humus.


Crops- Cotton, sugarcane, jowar, tobacco, wheat, rice



Eastern parts of Deccan Plateau, Tamil Nadu, Goa, Odisha and Meghalaya


Composition- Rich in iron and potash but deficient in lime, nitrogen, phosphorus and humus


Crops- Wheat, rice, cotton, sugarcane and pulses




Summits of Eastern and Western Ghats, Assam hills, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Paschim Banga and Odisha


Composition: Rich in iron but poor in silica, lime, phosphorus, potash and humus.


Crops – Tea, coffee, rubber, cashew and millets




West and North-West India, Rajasthan, North Gujarat and Southern Punjab


Composition – Rich in soluble salts but deficient in organic matter.


Crops – Unsuitable for cultivation but with irrigation, can be used to cultivate drought-resistant lime, millets, barley, cotton, maize and pulses




Hills of Jammu and Kashmir, Uttarakhand and Assam hills


Composition- Rich in iron and humus but deficient in lime.


Crops- With fertilizers, tea, fruits and medicinal plants can be grown



Saline and Alkaline

Drier parts of Bihar, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan and Maharashtra


Composition- Many salts such as sodium, magnesium and calcium.


Crops – Unfit for agriculture



Peaty and Marshy

Kerala, coastal Odisha, Tamil Nadu and Suderbans


Composition- Contain large amount of soluble salts and organic matter but lack potash and phosphates


Crops- Rice, jute



Transportation in India


The first train ran in India between Bombay and Thane, a stretch of 34 km on April 16, 1853. The first electric train in India was Deccan Queen. It was introduced in 1929 between Bombay and Poona. The longest train route is ‘Vivek ‘Fxpress’ from Dibrugarh in Assam to Kanyakumari in Tamil Nadu. It covers a distance of 4278 km.

Indian Railway system is the largest in Asia and the fourth largest in the world. The Indian Railways operate on three different gauges.

Broad Gauge (Distance between rails is 1.676 m)

Metre Gauge (Distance between rails is 1.00 m)

Narrow Gauge (Distance between rails is 0.762 or 0.610 m)

The longest railway platform in India is Gorakhpur with a stretch of around 1.3 km.


Railway Zones


Railways                                                            Headquarters


Central                                                  Mumbai VT


Eastern                                                 Kolkata


Northern                                                New Delhi


North Eastern                                        Gorakhpur


North- East Frontier                               Maligaon-Guwahati


Southern                                               Chennai


South Central                                        Secunderabad


South Eastern                                       Kolkata


Western                                                Mumbai Churchgate


East Coast                                            Bhubaneshwar


East Central                                          Hajipur


North Central                                         Allahabad


North Western                                       Jaipur


South Western                                      Bengaluru (Hubll)


West Central                                         Jabalpur


South- East Central                               Bilaspur


Kolkata Metro                                       Kolkata



Road Transport

India has one of the largest road networks in the world (33 lakh km approx). It consists of National

Highways, State Highways, other district roads and rural roads.

NH 7 is the longest highway in India


Important National Highways


National Highway                          Connects


NH1                                          New Delhi-Ambala-Jalandhar-Amritsar


NH2                                          Delhi-Kolkata


NH3                                          Agra-Mumbai


NH4                                          Thane and Chennai via Pune and Belgaum


NH5                                          Kolkata-Chennai


NH6                                          Kolkata-Dhule


NH7                                          Varanasi-Kanyakumari (2369 km)


NH8                                          Delhi-Fazilka


NH9                                          Mumbai-Vijayawada


NH10                                        Delhi-Fazilka


NH24                                        Delhi-Lucknow


NH26                                        Lucknow-Varanasi



Water Transport

The government has recognized the following National Waterways of India

NW1     Allahabad to Haldia                                                                   1629 km

NW2     Sadia to Dhubri on Brahmaputra river                                         819 km

NW3     Kollam to Kottapuram                                                                186 km

NW4     Kakinada to Marakkanam along Godavari and Krishna river         1110 km


Major Ports in India


Western Coast                                                Eastern Coast


Tidal Port Kandla (Gujarat)                      Paradip (Odisha)


Mumbai                                                              Vishakhapatnam


JL Nehru Port                                           Ennore


Mangalore                                              Tuticorin


Cochin                                                  Port Blair



Air Transport

J R D Tata was the first person to take a solo flight from Mumbai to Karachi in 1931. In 1953 all the private airlines were nationalized and Indian Airlines and Air India came into existence.

There are 12 international airports in India.

Name                                                                          City

Begumpet Airport                                                          Hyderabad

Calicut International Airport                                            Calicut

Chhatrapati Shivaji international Airport                           Mumbai

HAL Airport                                                                   Bengaluru

Goa Airport, Vasco da Gama City                                  Goa

Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose International Airport          Kolkata

Thiruvanathapuram international Airport                           Thiruvananthpuram

Lokpriya Gopinath Bordoloi International Airport             Guwahati

Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel International Airport                  Ahmadabad

Chennai international Airport                                           Chennai

Raja Sansi international Airport                                       Amritsar